Category: SpaceX

Retired Astronaut Who Spent a Year in Space Says Not to Doubt Elon Musk

Walking the Talk

Now retired, U.S. astronaut Scott Kelly is a veteran of four space flights. He holds the record for total accumulated days in space, as well as for the longest single mission by an American: a full year aboard the International Space Station (ISS). He clearly knows a thing or two about what’s possible in the realm of space flight, and he just told the world he doesn’t doubt Elon Musk when the SpaceX CEO shares his seemingly impossible plans.

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“When Elon Musk said he was going to launch his rocket and then land the first stage on a barge, I thought he was crazy,” Kelly said on Tuesday during an interview with CNBC’s Squawk Box. “And then he did it. I’m not going to ever doubt what he says, ever again.”

During the interview, Kelly spoke about Musk’s revamped plans for getting to Mars aboard a redesigned BFR, the 42-engine rocket SpaceX unveiled during the 2017 International Astronautical Congress (IAC) held in Australia last month. The astronaut says he doesn’t doubt Elon Musk will have the technology ready in five years to launch the BFR.

Rocket Man

Kelly didn’t focus solely on Mars during the interview; he also commented on Musk’s plans to use the BFR for commercial travel on Earth. The retired astronaut believes that regular and safe commercial space transportation will happen within the next 30 years or so.

“I think at first what we’ll have is something similar to the early days of aviation, where the barnstormers took people for rides, and that developed into a transportation system,” Kelly said, before adding, “The more we do it, the better we get at it.” Kelly told CNBC he believes traveling from Los Angeles to London in just 45 minutes in a real possibility.

SpaceX isn’t the only company working toward suborbital space travel. Commercial space tourism is supposedly the forte of Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic and Amazon’s Jeff Bezos with Blue Origin. Bigelow Aerospace is working on commercial space travel, as well.

In any case, while Kelly doesn’t doubt Elon Musk will be able to follow through on building the technology needed to get to Mars or to travel quickly between Earth’s major cities, he does know firsthand that space can have a dramatic effect on the human body. He studied that impact during his year-long stay aboard the ISS, noting, “In this weightless environment, we lose a lot of bone mass and muscle mass.” If we want to take trips to Mars, we’ll need to find ways to combat these effects, said Kelly.

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The U.S. Air Force Space Command Is “Completely Committed” to Recycled Rockets

Changing the Air Force Game

For General John W. Raymond of the U.S. Air Force Space Command, the future of space rocket technology lies in reusability and autonomy, and to this goal, Elon Musk’s SpaceX is already paving the way. Speaking to Bloomberg on Monday, Raymond said that U.S. Air Force is ready to follow suit, and they are “completely committed” to launch future missions using pre-flown rockets similar to SpaceX’s.

The general explained that it would be “absolutely foolish” not to do so, as reusable rockets would drive down the cost of launch missions, something SpaceX has already seen to be effective. “What Elon has done is significantly reduce launch costs,” Raymond said. “That’s driving reduced launch costs across the world.” An autonomous system aboard these reusable rockets further reduces costs, requiring lesser manpower and saving turn-around time between launches.

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The Falcon 9’s first re-flight. Image credit: SpaceX

“The folks out at Space and Missile Systems Center in Los Angeles that work for me would be in those dialogues,” the general added, referring to supposedly-ongoing talks to certify recycled boosters for military use. “I don’t know how far down the road we’ve gotten, but I am completely committed to launching on a reused rocket, a previously flown rocket, and making sure that we have the processes in place to be able to make sure that we can do that safely.”

Reliable Plans for Reusable Rockets

Since SpaceX first launched a reused Falcon 9 back in March, the company has enjoyed a series of successful commercial orbital missions. Obviously, the lower cost of sending satellites to space aboard pre-flown rockets is attractive for SpaceX’s growing list of commercial partners, which includes the U.S. Air Force. Indeed, SpaceX launched the highly-secretive X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle last month.

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Musk has since improved his plans for reusable rockets, previewing a revamped design for the BFR during his keynote at the 2017 International Aeronautical Congress (IAC) in Australia. Under the new scheme, the BFR would be the number one rocket for all of SpaceX’s needs, including flying satellites, re-supplying the International Space Station, and sending people to Mars — as well as plans for trans-global rocket travel. Musk recently clarified details about his plans in a Reddit AMA.

“I want everybody to go this way and I think the commercial industry that’s developing is going that way because they’re going to have to, to complete. It will completely transform the way we do launch operations,” Raymond said. For the general, the market is certainly going this way, and it won’t be smart for the U.S. Air Force not to follow “What we have to do is make sure we do it smartly.”

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Elon Musk Said the Raptor Rocket Will “Meet or Exceed Passenger Airline Levels of Safety”

The SpaceX Raptor

In 2016, the United States Air Force contracted SpaceX to begin designing and developing the Raptor prototype upper-stage engine, a bipropellant rocket engine. This design is based on SpaceX’s reusable, methane-powered Raptor engine, which is used in the upper stages of both the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy. On Saturday, in an ask me anything (AMA) on Reddit, Elon Musk got candid online and answered some questions about the prototype and other Raptor design objectives.

One person asked, “Could you update us on the status of scaling up the Raptor prototype to the final size? The sub-scale Raptor prototype has a (speculated) thrust of about ~100 tons-force currently, and will be scaled up to ~170 tons-force according to your IAC/2017 design. Can you tell us more about the current status and expected (best-case) timeline of this scale-up effort?”

Musk gave a thorough response: “Thrust scaling is the easy part. Very simple to scale the [developed] Raptor to 170 tons.  The flight engine design is much lighter and tighter, and is extremely focused on reliability. The objective is to meet or exceed passenger airline levels of safety.”

“If our engine is even close to a jet engine in reliability, has a flak shield to protect against a rapid unscheduled disassembly and we have more engines than the typical two of most airliners, then exceeding airline safety should be possible,” he continued. “That will be especially important for point to point journeys on Earth. The advantage of getting somewhere in 30 mins by rocket instead of 15 hours by plane will be negatively affected if ‘but also, you might die’ is on the ticket.”

Rocket Travel

SpaceX’s reusable rockets have paved the way for cost-effective, environmentally conscious, and efficient space travel. The Raptor prototype engine is, as Musk explained in the AMA, currently on track to scale up for use in the aerospace company’s rockets. But Musk’s response, alongside his recent presentation at the International Aeronautical Congress (IAC), have added to the discussion. These updates not only confirmed that SpaceX will be able to scale up the engine, but asserted that the design will focus on human safety—all the while alluding to the possibility of casual travel by rocket.

So, is there the possibility, in the near future, that SpaceX will be marketing their rockets for casual, commercial use? It is possible. But currently, it seems SpaceX still has work to do in completing the scaling of the engine and improving the safety for riders within these vehicles. If the comments poking fun at Musk’s careful wording of potential failure are to be taken to heart, SpaceX and Musk’s priorities—the dreaded “unscheduled disassembly”—are in the right place.

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Elon Musk Teased the Idea of Getting an Internet Connection on Mars

Internet on Mars

On Saturday, Elon Musk participated in an Ask Me Anything (AMA) forum on Reddit in which he answered questions pertaining to about SpaceX’s latest rocket, the “BFR,” as a follow up to his IAC 2017 talk. One user put forth the idea of internet on Mars, asking, “Does SpaceX have any interest in putting more satellites in orbit around Mars (or even rockets) for internet/communications before we get feet on the ground? Or are the current 5-6 active ones we have there sufficient?”

Musk, who was expertly playful and comical throughout the AMA, responded, “If anyone wants to build a high bandwidth comm link to Mars, please do.”

So, is the idea of internet on Mars truly feasible, or is it just an outlandish fantasy right now? One Reddit user had some pretty keen insight into its potential:

The concept of an internet connection on Mars is kinda awesome. You could theoretically make an internet protocol that would mirror a subset of the internet near Mars. A user would need to queue up the parts of the internet they wanted available and the servers would sync the relevant data. There could be a standard format for pages to be Mars renderable since server-side communication is impractical.

This exploration of the concept prompted Musk to simply reply, “Nerd” — which the user it was directed at and others in the thread took as an ultimate sign of respect.

Within the Realm of Possibility

Of course, Musk also dug a little bit deeper, “But, yes, it would make sense to strip the headers out and do a UDP-style feed with extreme compression and a CRC check to confirm the packet is good, then do a batch resend of the CRC-failed packets. Something like that. Earth to Mars is over 22 light-minutes at max distance.” he continued, “3 light-minutes at closest distance. So you could Snapchat, I suppose. If that’s a thing in the future.”

Could there one day be internet on Mars? Image Credit: NASA
Could there one day be internet on Mars? Image Credit: NASA

This is not the first time that the idea of an interplanetary internet has come up. Back in 2015, Musk suggested the idea of placing hundreds of satellites 1,200 km (750 miles) above Earth to help accomplish this task. He even told Bloomberg Businessweek that, “Our focus is on creating a global communications system that would be larger than anything that has been talked about to date.” The theory of this plan rests on the fact that light travels faster in the vacuum of space than through Earth’s atmosphere.

Newsweek also discussed the topic last September with Josh Boehm, a former SpaceX employee. It seems as though, currently, the satellites and infrastructure necessary to make this a reality aren’t in place. But, since humans haven’t reached Mars yet or even begun the journey, there is still a few years to build a Martian internet.

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Here’s Everything Elon Musk Unveiled About Tesla and SpaceX in Saturday’s AMA

Ask Me Anything

Saturday on Reddit, Elon Musk took to Reddit to join a massive internet audience in an AMA (ask me anything) questions thread to follow up on his International Aeronautical Congress (IAC) 2017 presentation. While Musk is typically candid and open about the progress of his various endeavors, he dedicated the AMA time and space to take questions specifically related to the IAC presentation — namely, what SpaceX is working on. As such, most of the questions users posed (and the ones he answered) were of a technical nature, though the mood was still lighthearted.

Rocket Science

One of the first questions, collected on the r/SpaceX subreddit leading up to the AMA, was about the Raptor’s thrust. It was one of the highest ranked questions at the AMA’s outset, and the first Musk answered.

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Another question wondered just how the dry mass and thrust of the rockets would affect their return to Earth — namely, whether they would land by “hover-slam.” Musk responded that “Landing will not be a hoverslam,” and explained that the thrust to weight ratio will actually “feel quite gentle” and that as the ratio of thrust to weight at launch (also around 1.3) it will “pretty much look like a launch in reverse. . .”

Musk also provided some insight into the design of the rockets, and gave some context as to their design’s function and purpose. When one user asked about how the BFS will manage the temperature of propellents in zero gravity, Musk explained the venting procedure — adding that a cryocooler could be added in the future.

When user CMDR-Owl asked about what progress we’ll see in terms of development and testing over the next five or so years before SpaceX’s first planned launch, Musk explained that they’ll be starting “with starting with a full-scale Ship doing short hops of a few hundred kilometers altitude and lateral distance,” adding that:

Next step will be doing orbital velocity Ship flights, which will need all of the above. Worth noting that BFS is capable of reaching orbit by itself with low payload, but having the BF Booster increases payload by more than an order of magnitude. Earth is the wrong planet for single stage to orbit. No problemo on Mars.

3D printing has already become beneficial to many industries, and naturally the question or whether it will benefit rocket production was a good one to ask. Musk responded that although most of the Raptor’s parts will be machine forged, some could be 3D printed.

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Life on Mars

Speaking on life on Mars, while the focus was mainly on the rocket technology that will get us to there (and potentially elsewhere), users did have questions about what SpaceX needs to do to ensure that when we get to the Red Planet, we’ll be able to survive. Reddit user foxyjim99 asked about considerations such as food (namely, how you would calculate the amount needed for a mission and ensure that the need is met) — vitally important, but admittedly not something that SpaceX has as a primary focus. Musk responded that “Our goal is get you there and ensure the basic infrastructure for propellant production and survival is in place,” comparing the work that SpaceX is doing is roughly analogous to building “the equivalent of the transcontinental railway” — and as for terraforming Mars to make (and keep) it habitable, other companies and millions of people will need to be involved.

To that end, when user adammrxifgnqph asked if there were plans to send up additional satellites before the Mars mission, to facilitate communication, another user jumped in to ask about Mars-to-Earth communication. Musk’s response? “If anyone wants to build a high bandwidth comm link to Mars, please do.” Whether meant in jest, a challenge, or a call to action, user general-information pointed out that the concept interplanetary transmission is pretty cool. Musk responded to the user’s thoughts with an eloquent “Nerd,” but then offered a few more thoughts — ensuring us that when we go to Mars, we’ll probably be able to brag on social media about it.

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The AMA was definitely a treat for those interested in the technical aspect of designing and building the rockets, but Musk didn’t keep it too serious:

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Elon Musk is clearly not your typical CEO. Not only is he, through SpaceX, attempting feats of space travel and exploration never before attempted, but he’s communicating with the public about his efforts with a level of transparency that’s very atypical. There are some who think that Musk’s ambitious plans of getting to Mars within the near future are impossible — or at the very least, not probable. But whether or not SpaceX is able to accomplish exactly what they are intending, Elon Musk is proving that everyone is invited to be included in that process.

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Elon Musk’s Rocket Could Get You Anywhere on Earth in 60 Min. Here’s What It Would Feel Like.

Earth to Earth Flights

To get from one city to another in just 30 to 60 minutes—who doesn’t want that? SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk definitely wants it, and that’s one of the potential uses for his redesigned BFR: earth to earth flights between major cities.

Musk previewed the latest BFR update at the 2017 International Astronautical Congress in September. Designed to be Musk’s new rocket and spacecraft for Mars, the BFR could also be a suborbital spacecraft for SpaceX, said former astronaut Leroy Chiao. Essentially, suborbital spacecrafts—like Virgin Galactic’s VSS Unity and Blue Origin’s New Shepard—are meant for the budding space tourism industry, and could function something like extremely high-tech, high-flying airplanes. Flying at the BFR’s 4.6 miles per second, you could get from New York to Los Angeles in just 25 minutes.

But just how would riding such a spacecraft feel? Chiao, who’s flown aboard three NASA space shuttles and a Russian Soyuz, described it to Business Insider“[L]aunch, insertion and entry would be similar to a capsule spacecraft [like the Soyuz], with the difference being in the final phase of landing,” he said.

Can You Handle It?

Chiao suggests that flying aboard a BFR won’t exactly be easy. “During launch on a rocket with liquid engines […] the liftoff is very smooth and one really can’t feel it,” he described. “Ignition of the next stage engine(s) causes a momentary bump in g-force. As you get to the last part of ascent, you feel some g’s come on through your chest, but it is not uncomfortable.”

Leroy Chiao flashes a thumbs-up on the way to launch. Chiao says earth to earth flights may not be for the faint of heart.
Astronaut Leroy Chiao on the way to the launch of ISS Expedition 10. (Image credit: NASA)

The crucial moment is when the BFR’s rocket engines separate from the spacecraft, when passengers would feel “instantly weightless.” Here’s how he describes it:

You feel like you are tumbling, as your balance system struggles to make sense of what is happening, and you are very dizzy. You feel the fluid shift [in your body], kind of like laying heads-down on an incline, because there is no longer gravity pulling your body fluids down into your legs. All this can cause nausea. As you start to re-enter the atmosphere, you would feel the g’s come on smoothly and start to build.

Then, finally the BFR lands. “[Y]ou would both feel and hear [the engines],” Chiao said. “As the thrust builds, you would feel the g’s come on again and then at touchdown, you would feel a little bump.”

If you think you can handle it, then maybe the BFR’s Earth-to-Earth travel is for you. “[T]his would not be for the faint of heart, and it is difficult to see how this would be inexpensive,” he said. Keep in mind, however, that there’s still a lot SpaceX and Musk have to figure out before this actually works. “But the one thing I’ve learned from observing Elon, is not to count him out,” Chiao added.

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Elon Musk Has a Plan to Get Humans to Mars, But Can They Survive?

The Road to Mars

At the 2017 edition of the International Astronautical Congress, Elon Musk told attendees exactly how he plans to take humans to Mars. SpaceX’s BFR project is poised to make some huge changes to the way we travel long distances on Earth, but it’s also set to provide a means of getting to the red planet.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
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Musk claims that the latest BFR design is capable of ferrying 100 crewmembers, along with the equipment needed to install a colony on Mars. He stated an admittedly “aspirational” goal of sending ships to the planet by 2022, with crews following two years later.

Mars has long since been a major goal for Musk and SpaceX, and BFR seems to have the necessary specs to bring it to fruition. However, there’s one big question that remains — how are the astronauts going to survive the challenging conditions once they’ve made the trip?

Survive Red Death

“Elon lays out an impossibly large vision, and then revises it slightly downward,” said space policy expert John Logsdon, speaking with Business Insider. “People say he’s being practical. This is no more practical than it was last year There are so many questions on the viability of this plan.”

The nuts and bolts of SpaceX’s plan to keep martian explorers alive seems to hinge upon the ships that would precede the first human visitors. One would locate water sources, while the second would set up apparatuses capable of turning water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and fuel. There would be a need for cargo ships to resupply the colony with food on a regular basis, at least to begin with.

Musk has remained fairly quiet on how SpaceX would keep the new residents of Mars fit and healthy in the long-term. One proposal that’s been touted by others is bioregenerative life support, which collects human’s breath, liquid waste, and solid waste, and uses organic material to recycle it into food, water, and air.

“Biological systems are really resilient,” said D. Marshall Porterfield, who was formerly the director of NASA’s Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. “They tend to be self-healing, self-repairing, so that’s one of the advantages of a bioregenerative life support capability.”

Bioregenerative life support would help make a prospective colony on Mars much more sustainable, not to mention cheaper to operate. However, it would also require a huge amount of research and development — and it doesn’t seem like SpaceX is interested in tackling the project.

Getting There

When Porterfield was working for NASA, SpaceX approached the agency with plans to collaborate on a Mars flyby. At this time, he was given an insight into the inner workings of the company, and found that it didn’t have a science division of the scope required to develop technology like bioregenerative life support.

Of course, things could have changed in the interim. But other expert sources are just as dismissive of SpaceX’s strength in this area.

Living Off The Land: A Guide To Settling Mars [Infographic]
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SpaceX is a very good engineering firm with a solid track record, when it comes to rocket science. Certainly they’re going to design a system that makes every effort for high level of safety,” said Logsdon. “But they haven’t said a word about how people will survive once they get to Mars. It just isn’t a part of their capabilities.”

It may well be that SpaceX is sticking to its biggest strength, that being transportation. If its BFR can get personnel and equipment to Mars, the smartest thing to do might be leaving other aspects of the mission to organizations that specialize in those areas.

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SpaceX Just Launched Their 14th Falcon 9 Rocket of 2017

2017 has been a banner year for SpaceX, and this morning, the spaceflight company added to their success by launching their 14th Falcon 9 rocket of the year.

The SpaceX rocket launch took place at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California with a payload of 10 Iridium satellites bound for orbit. The Falcon 9’s first-stage rocket booster was recovered shortly after the launch, landing safely on SpaceX’s Just Read the Instructions drone ship in the Pacific.

This marked the third mission SpaceX has undertaken for the satellite company. More launches are on the way to complete Iridium’s NEXT satellite network, which will cover the entire surface of Earth using low-Earth orbit satellites.

SpaceX rocket launch
Image Credit: SpaceX

SpaceX plans to attempt another Falcon 9 launch on October 11. This SpaceX rocket launch, a joint venture with EchoStar and SES, will take place at Kennedy Space Center in Florida and will utilize a refurbished Falcon 9 first stage.

If successful, the October 11 launch will be another example of SpaceX’s ability to operate missions in quick succession, which will help to lower costs and continue to boost accessibility to space.

SpaceX has a total of eight more planned missions anticipated before the end of the year.

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Elon Musk’s Plans to Colonize Mars Overlook Some Major Hurdles

Elon Musk has a plan, and it’s about as audacious as they come. Not content with living on our pale blue dot, Musk and his company SpaceX want to colonize Mars, fast. They say they’ll send a duo of supply ships to the red planet within five years. By 2024, they’re aiming to send the first humans. From there they have visions of building a space port, a city and, ultimately, a planet they’d like to “geoengineer” to be as welcoming as a second Earth.

If he succeeds, Musk could thoroughly transform our relationship with our solar system, inspiring a new generation of scientists and engineers along the way. But between here and success, Musk and SpaceX will need to traverse an unbelievably complex risk landscape.

Many will be technical. The rocket that’s going to take Musk’s colonizers to Mars (code named the “BFR” — no prizes for guessing what that stands for) hasn’t even been built yet. No one knows what hidden hurdles will emerge as testing begins. Musk does have a habit of successfully solving complex engineering problems though; and despite the mountainous technical challenges SpaceX faces, there’s a fair chance they’ll succeed.

As a scholar of risk innovation, what I’m not sure about is how SpaceX will handle some of the less obvious social and political hurdles they face. To give Elon Musk a bit of a head start, here are some of the obstacles I think he should have on his mission-to-Mars checklist.

Planetary Protection

Imagine there was once life on Mars, but in our haste to set up shop there, we obliterate any trace of its existence. Or imagine that harmful organisms exist on Mars and spacecraft inadvertently bring them back to Earth.

These are scenarios that keep astrobiologists and planetary protection specialists awake at night. They’ve led to unbelievably stringent international policies around what can and cannot be done on government-sponsored space missions.

Yet Musk’s plans threaten to throw the rule book on planetary protection out the window. As a private company SpaceX isn’t directly bound by international planetary protection policies. And while some governments could wrap the company up in space bureaucracy, they’ll find it hard to impose the same levels of hoop-jumping that NASA missions, for instance, currently need to navigate.

It’s conceivable (but extremely unlikely) that a laissez-faire attitude toward interplanetary contamination could lead to Martian bugs invading Earth. The bigger risk is stymying our chances of ever discovering whether life existed on Mars before human beings and their grubby microbiomes get there. And the last thing Musk needs is a whole community of disgruntled astrobiologists baying for his blood as he tramples over their turf and robs them of their dreams.

Ecoterrorism

Musk’s long-term vision is to terraform Mars — reengineer our neighboring planet as “a nice place to be” — and allow humans to become a multi-planetary species. Sounds awesome — but not to everyone. I’d wager there will be some people sufficiently appalled by the idea that they decide to take illegal action to interfere with it.

Ecoterrorists claimed responsibility in 1998 for burning part of a Colorado ski resort they said threatened animal habitats. Image Credit: Vail Fire Department

The mythology surrounding ecoterrorism makes it hard to pin down how much of it actually happens. But there certainly are individuals and groups like the Earth Liberation Front willing to flout the law in their quest to preserve pristine wildernesses. It’s a fair bet there will be people similarly willing to take extreme action to stop the pristine wilderness of Mars being desecrated by humans.

How this might play out is anyone’s guess, although science fiction novels like Kim Stanley Robinson’s “Mars Trilogy” give an interesting glimpse into what could transpire once we get there. More likely, SpaceX will need to be on the lookout for saboteurs crippling their operations before leaving Earth.

Space Politics

Back in the days before private companies were allowed to send rockets into space, international agreements were signed that set out who could do what outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Under the United Nations Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, for instance, states agreed to explore space for the benefit of all humankind, not place weapons of mass destruction on celestial bodies and avoid harmful contamination.

That was back in 1967, four years before Elon Musk was born. With the emergence of ambitious private space companies like SpaceX, Blue Origin and others, though, who’s allowed to do what in the solar system is less clear. It’s good news for companies like SpaceX — at least in the short term. But this uncertainty is eventually going to crystallize into enforceable space policies, laws and regulations that apply to everyone. And when it does, Musk needs to make sure he’s not left out in the cold.

This is of course policy, not politics. But there are powerful players in the global space policy arena. If they’re rubbed the wrong way, it’ll be politics that determines how resulting policies affect SpaceX.

Climate Change

Perhaps the biggest danger is that Musk’s vision of colonizing Mars looks too much like a disposable Earth philosophy — we’ve messed up this planet, so time to move on to the next. Of course, this idea may not factor into Musk’s motivation, but in the world of climate change mitigation and adaptation, perceptions matter. The optics of moving to a new planet to escape the mess we’ve made here is not a scenario that’s likely to win too many friends amongst those trying to ensure Earth remains habitable. And these factions wield considerable social and economic power – enough to cause problems for SpaceX if they decide to mobilize over this.

There is another risk here too, thanks to a proposed terrestrial use of SpaceX’s BFR as a hyperfast transport between cities on Earth. Musk has recently titillated tech watchers with plans to use commercial rocket flights to make any city on Earth less than an hour’s travel from any other. This is part of a larger plan to make the BFR profitable, and help cover the costs of planetary exploration. It’s a crazy idea — that just might work. But what about the environmental impact?

Even though the BFR will spew out tons of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, the impacts may not be much greater than current global air travel (depending how many flights end up happening). And there’s always the dream of creating the fuel — methane and oxygen — using solar power and atmospheric gases. The BFR could even conceivably be carbon-neutral one day.

But at a time when humanity should be doing everything in our power to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the optics aren’t great. And this could well lead to a damaging backlash before rocket-commuting even gets off the ground.

Model of satellite Sputnik 1
When the USSR launched Sputnik on Oct. 4, 1957, it also launched the space race. Image Credit: AP Photo

Inspiring — or Infuriating?

Sixty years ago, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite — and changed the world. It was the dawn of the space age, forcing nations to rethink their technical education programs and inspiring a generation of scientists and engineers.

We may well be standing at a similar technological tipping point as researchers develop the vision and technologies that could launch humanity into the solar system. But for this to be a new generation’s Sputnik moment, we’ll need to be smart in navigating the many social and political hurdles between where we are now and where we could be.

Colonize Mars poster from SpaceX
Imagine the possibilities…. Image Credit: SpaceX, CC BY

These nontechnical hurdles come down to whether society writ large grants SpaceX and Elon Musk the freedom to boldly go where no one has gone before. It’s tempting to think of planetary entrepreneurialism as simply getting the technology right and finding a way to pay for it. But if enough people feel SpaceX is threatening what they value (such as the environment — here or there), or disadvantaging them in some way (for example, by allowing rich people to move to another planet and abandoning the rest of us here), they’ll make life difficult for the company.

This is where Musk and SpaceX need to be as socially adept as they are technically talented. Discounting these hidden hurdles could spell disaster for Elon Musk’s Mars in the long run. Engaging with them up front could lead to the first people living and thriving on another planet in my lifetime.

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Is Elon Musk’s Fast Earth Travel via Rocket Possible?

Commercial Rocket Travel

Towards the end of his talk at the recently concluded International Astronautical Congress (IAC 2017) held in Adelaide, Australia last week, SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk mentioned an “unexpected” application of their new rocket technology. “If we’re building this thing to go to the Moon and Mars, then why not go to other places on Earth as well?” Musk asked on Friday.

Instead of just ferrying humans to Mars, the new BFR could cut travel time between the world’s major cities to just 30 minutes, more or less. In an Instagram post featuring the teaser video, Musk said that the idea is to “Fly to most places on Earth in under 30 mins and anywhere in under 60 [mins].”

While that certainly is appealing — and it does look nice on video — it raises a number of questions. Let’s consider some of them.

Feasibility and Affordability

One of the reasons SpaceX designed a new BFR was to cut down on costs, and potentially change the company’s revenue scheme. Sending people to Mars would already be rather expensive — won’t sending people from New York to Shanghai via rocket be equally so?

We know that the flight won’t cost the same as getting to Mars, which is $10,000 according to Musk. He estimates the ticket cost of one such rocket flight to be “about the same as full fare economy in an aircraft.” A quick Google search would show that the cheapest economy airline travel from New York to Shanghai costs about $435. Going by what Musk revealed about the BFR, it supposedly has a cabin capacity similar to that of an Airbus A380, which can carry more than 850 people. Doing the math, SpaceX could earn somewhere around $370,000 per rocket flight.

Sounds good enough, right? That’s until you consider how much it costs to launch a rocket. Currently, SpaceX says that one Falcon 9 launch cots about $62 million. Assuming that a commercial Earth-travel BFR would cost about the same, earning less than $400,000 per flight doesn’t seem like a sound business choice.

Image credit: SpaceX, screenshot
Image credit: SpaceX, screenshot

That’s assuming SpaceX can get this whole set-up to work, in the first place. “You can’t fly humans on that same kind of orbit,” Brian Weeden, program planning director at Secure World Foundation, told The Verge. “For one, the acceleration and the G-forces for both the launch and the reentry would kill people. I don’t have it right in front of me, but it’s a lot more than the G-forces on an astronaut we see today going up into space and coming back down, and that’s not inconsiderable.” Humans aren’t immune to the stresses of spaceflight, radiation exposure included, even at short lengths.

Then there’s the question of logistics. Musk isn’t the first to propose commercial space transportation. The U.S. Department of Transportation published a report in 2010, as a result of considering a supersonic Concorde airliner. The report explains the financial, technological, and regulatory risks of this mode of transport. We’re in 2017 now, though, and technology has seen significant advances. Regardless, the same passenger safety concerns hold.

We’re not shooting the rocket down before it even takes flight. Musk has yet to give a timetable for when this would be available, but it’s probably around the same time SpaceX plans to land on Mars — some time between 2022 and 2024. Maybe by then SpaceX will have developed the technology and the strategy to zoom past these hurdles.

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Elon Musk is Officially Sending Humans to Mars in 2024

One Rocket to Rule Them All

On the last day of the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk took the stage to discuss his company’s BFR project. In addition to sharing details on how the technology might be used to revolutionize long-distance travel on Earth, Musk also explained how it could support our off-world activities.

A Comprehensive List of Elon Musk’s Breakthroughs in 2017
Click to View Full Infographic

The basic idea behind the BFR is to create a single booster and ship that could replace the company’s Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, and Dragon. This would allow SpaceX to pour all the resources currently split across those three crafts into the one project.

Once completed, the BFR could be used to launch satellites and space telescopes or clean up space debris. It would also be capable of docking with the International Space Station (ISS) for the delivery of cargo. Most excitingly, though, is the BFR’s potential to facilitate the establishment of off-world colonies.

Mission to Mars

The current BFR design is large enough to ferry up to 100 people and plenty of equipment, which Musk believes will be instrumental in creating a base of operations on the Moon. “It’s 2017, I mean, we should have a lunar base by now,” he said during his IAC presentation. “What the hell is going on?”

Musk’s aspirations go well beyond the Moon, though. SpaceX’s goal of heading to Mars as soon as they have the technology to do so is well known, and during last night’s presentation, Musk shared imagery of a fully fledged Martian city.

Construction on SpaceX’s first ship capable of heading to Mars is expected to start within the next nine months, and Musk hopes to send a pair of cargo ships to the planet in 2022, though he admitted that this goal is somewhat “aspirational.”

Two years later, SpaceX would send astronauts to the Red Planet aboard two crewed BFRs. These first “settlers” would construct a fuel plant that would serve as the beginning of the Martian colony. After that, the plan is to build multiple landing pads, then expand out into terraforming and the construction of an urban environment.

Musk’s objectives are indisputably audacious. However, putting humans on Mars will take some big, bold ideas, and his certainly qualify.

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Elon Musk Plans to Make City-to-City Rocket Travel A Reality

Earlier this week, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk teased “unexpected applications” for the company’s interplanetary transportation technology, set to be detailed during his presentation at the International Astronautical Congress. We now know what he was referring to — ultra-fast long-distance travel right here on Earth.

SpaceX’s BFR will be capable of taking astronauts to the Moon and Mars, but it’s also set to dramatically reduce the time it takes to travel between major cities. Musk claims that it could be used to travel anywhere on Earth in less than an hour.

Travelling between New York City and Shanghai will apparently take just 39 minutes. Passengers could head to Dubai from London in just 29 minutes or make it from Los Angeles to Toronto in 24 minutes.

Despite the BFR’s incredible speed — the craft would reach 18,000 miles per hour at its peak — the ride would be pretty comfortable, according to Musk. In a tweet posted shortly after his presentation, he explained that the ascent would feel like a “mild to moderate amusement park ride,” and the journey itself would be smooth, peaceful, and silent right up until landing.

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Live: Everything Elon Musk Just Unveiled About His Plans to Colonize Mars

Excitement Down Under

Every year, the who’s who of the space industry gathers at the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) to celebrate all things space-related. The week-long event is essentially the Comic-Con of space exploration, with panels of astronauts replacing the cast of Game of Thrones and talks on off-world colonization filling in for the latest Marvel movie trailer.

This year’s IAC is being held in Adelaide, Australia, and the past few days have delivered their share of excitement.

Panelists have overviewed plans for Moon villages, Bill Nye has detailed the possibilities of solar sailing, and Lockheed Martin has unveiled their potentially game-changing lander. Experts have discussed issues ranging from diversity in the space industry to the importance of inspiring today’s youth to tackle tomorrow’s off-world challenges, and historic milestones in space exploration have received their due celebration.

Still, the most highly anticipated event has been saved for the last day of IAC: a presentation by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk.

The Main Event

At last year’s IAC, Musk unveiled his company’s plans for Mars colonization using the Interplanetary Transport System (ITS), and he has been teasing an update to those plans for months. Just this week, he tweeted that “major improvements” and “unexpected applications” would be unveiled during his presentation at IAC. Could those applications have something to do with plans for a global internet network? Some space-based take on clean energy?

Thankfully, we don’t have to speculate much longer. The day is finally here, and Elon Musk is ready to take the stage. Watch along via the livestream below, and to ensure you don’t miss a single exciting revelation from the SpaceX CEO, we will be updating this article live throughout his presentation.

  • Musk starts by reiterating why he believes it’s important that we become a multiplanet species.
  • Musk says the most important thing about his presentation is this: “I think we’ve figured out how to pay for [BFR].”
  • Key to that is having a single vehicle that can do everything that’s needed in greater Earth orbit activity. “We want to make our current vehicles redundant,” says Musk.
  • SpaceX wants to create one craft that replaces Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, and Dragon.
  • The company has been perfecting propulsive landing and now has had 16 consecutive successful landings.
  • “We believe the precision is good enough…that we will not need legs.”
  • The forthcoming Dragon 2 will directly dock with the space station with zero human intervention.
  • Musk notes that today is the ninth anniversary of the first successful SpaceX launch.
  • Falcon 9 has 30 times the payload capability of Falcon 1 and includes reuse of the primary booster. Next goal is reuse of the fairing, which will equal 70 to 80 percent reusability for the craft.
  • The company is now beginning serious development of BFR. They plan to have a payload of 150 tons to low-Earth orbit.
  • BFR stats include a a 48 meter length, a dry mass of 85 tons, and 1,100 tons propellant mass.
  • The payload bay of BFR will be eight stories tall.
  • The company has added a delta wing with a split flap to the BFR design. This will allow the craft to handle a range of payloads and atmospheric densities.
  • The payload area has a pressurized volume of 825 cubic meters, and the Mars transit configuration consists of 40 cabins and large common areas, central storage, galley, and solar storm shelter.
  • Fuel tank will hold 240 tons of CH4. The oxygen tank holds 860 tons of liquid O2.
  • The engine section consists of six engines: two sea-level engines and four vacuum engines.
  • You can land the ship with either one of the two center engines. “We want the landing risk to be as close to zero as possible,” says Musk.
  • The launch cost for the BFR (150 ton payload) is less than for the Falcon 1 (.7 ton payload).
  • BFR could be used to launch satellites, clean up space debris, or service the ISS.
  • The BFR could go to the Moon and back with no local propellant production on the Moon, which would enable the creation of a lunar base.
  • “It’s 2017. We should have a lunar base by now,” says Musk.
  • With a BFR, you could send a ship to orbit, refill its tanks, and then send it to Mars. You would need to use local resources on Mars to refuel.
  • Because Mars has a lower gravity than Earth, we would not need a booster to leave the Red Planet.
  • Entry to Mars would be at 7.5 kilometers per second.
  • Aspirational timeline: By 2022, land at least two cargo ships on Mars; confirm water resources and identify hazards; and place power, mining, and life support infrastructure for future flights.
  • By 2024, send two crew ships to take the first people to Mars, send two cargo ships to bring more equipment and supplies, set up propellant production plant, and build up base to prepare for expansion.
  • Musk shares a video detailing what a 39-minute trip from New York to Shanghai would look like via a SpaceX rocket traveling at 27,000 kilometers per hour (18,000 miles per hour).
  • “Most of what people would consider long-distance trips would be completed in less than half an hour,” says Musk.
  • Musk concludes the presentation with a question: “If we’re building this thing to go to the Moon and Mars, then why not go to other places on Earth as well?”

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Here’s How to Watch Elon Musk’s Presentation at the International Astronautical Congress Live

Tonight, Elon Musk will take to the stage at the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia to address attendees. Once he does, people around the world will be able to see what he has to say via the livestream below.

Earlier this week, Musk teased “major improvements” and “unexpected applications” for SpaceX’s Interplanetary Transport System (ITS). He first unveiled the project at the 2016 edition of the conference, so it’s quite fitting that he’ll be issuing an update at the same event.

The ITS will apparently be capable of carrying around 100 people per flight, and is set to be the most powerful rocket ever to launch. It’s a key component of SpaceX’s long-term goal of establishing a permanent human presence on Mars — especially now that the Red Dragon spacecraft has apparently been put on the back-burner, according to recent comments from NASA’s head of planetary science, Jim Green.

On Tuesday, Musk took to Twitter to share that he would be giving a detailed description of a planetary colonizer device during his presentation. It’s expected that his address will begin at 12.30 AM (EST) on September 29.

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New Regulatory Authority May Create A Hurdle for SpaceX’s Satellite Internet

On 26 September, the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) voted 5-0 to defer the matter of stipulating regulations for SpaceX satellites, shuffling the decision to the UN’s International Telecommunications Union (ITU). The ITU will replace the FCC in regulating the position, power, and frequencies of SpaceX’s planned constellation of internet satellites.

This means that Elon Musk will face new regulations before he can move forward with plans to girdle the Earth with internet coverage from thousands of new satellites.

Image credit: Visual Hunt
Image credit: Visual Hunt

One of the major problems SpaceX will face is that the ITU operates on a “first come, first serve” basis, which gives existing satellite companies privileged consideration over new projects—viz., SpaceX. If the ITU approves SpaceX’s new satellite distribution, then they’ll have to compete with the likes of OneWeb and TeleSat, both of whom already operate their own internet satellite constellations. SpaceX will also have to coordinate with both companies if successful, in order to minimize interference with satellite activity.

An FCC filing shows SpaceX plans to deploy 1,600 internet satellites at first, with another 2,825 after a six-year deadline, according to a Bloomberg report.

“Completing the full constellation over a six-year period would require a launch cadence of more than 60 satellites per month, beginning on the day the Commission grants a license,” SpaceX wrote in a filing on the matter. “This is an aggressive pace even for a company like SpaceX, which has demonstrated considerable launch capabilities.”

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Get Ready. Elon Musk is Unveiling Updates About his Interplanetary Spaceship This Friday

Major Improvements

This week, preeminent figures from the lengths and breadth of the spacefaring community will convene at the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Adelaide, Australia. On Friday, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk will address attendees, and he apparently has some big news to share.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Earlier this morning, Musk took to his personal Twitter account to tease the unveiling of “major improvements” as well as “some unexpected applications” during his appearance on Friday.

While we can’t say for sure exactly what Musk is referring to, there’s a good chance that it relates to one of SpaceX’s biggest goals for the future: Mars. Back in July, he tweeted that the next big update on SpaceX’s plans for a Mars expedition could happen at IAC 2017. Additionally, the project was officially unveiled at last year’s IAC, making this year’s event a particularly appropriate setting for a major update.

Unexpected Applications

Given that SpaceX’s Red Dragon program was recently put on the back burner, the current status of the company’s mission to Mars is in a bit of limbo, so the possibility of learning the details of their new plan in just a few days is very exciting. However, Musk’s reference to “unexpected applications” in his tweet this morning might be a hint that his announcement isn’t directly related to space exploration.

One potential alternative is SpaceX’s Starlink project, which will use a network of satellites to provide internet access back on Earth.

Given the location of the event, the applications might even have something to do with Musk’s efforts to help Australia improve its renewable energy infrastructure. In July, he inked a deal to implement a Powerpack battery system at the Hornsdale Wind Farm, and while that is a technically Tesla project, rather than a SpaceX endeavor, perhaps Musk is bringing his two companies together in some way.

Whatever Musk is planning to announce, it’ll be livestreamed around the world, so we’ll all find out at the same time.

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Elon Musk is Giving an Update on SpaceX’s Mars Plans Next Week

A Bit of Tweaking

Almost a year after SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk unveiled his plans to make human beings a multi-planetary species by getting to Mars, the serial entrepreneur is set to give highly anticipated updates next week. Musk will once again be at the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Australia, the same forum where he first revealed SpaceX’s plans for a Martian conquest.

Speaking at last year’s IAC, held in Guadalajara, Mexico, Musk revealed a highly ambitious but convincing plan to get to Mars. While some, like popular astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, have reservations about this plan, SpaceX has been working hard in developing the technologies necessary to make it happen. As a result of their preparations, certain adjustments have been made — and Musk has already hinted at what some of these might be.

Eyes on Mars

One of the changes we’re expecting is about the rockets, specifically in terms of size. In July, Musk said that SpaceX has designed the rockets for Mars to be smaller than initially planned, to cut down on costs. Right now, we know that these would fit in SpaceX’s existing factories, and would be capable of both Earth orbital missions as well as traveling to Mars.

“Maybe we can pay for it by using it for Earth orbit activity. That’s one of the key elements of the new architecture,” Musk said in a July interview. Cutting down costs is necessary, especially since Musk has put a cap on how much a ticket to Mars should be, at around $200,000.

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This year’s IAC will be focusing on Mars, with Musk scheduled to present on September 29, the last day of the conference. Aside from SpaceX, Lockheed Martin is expected to present its idea for a Mars Base Camp designed to support NASA’s new Space Launch System and its Orion spacecraft. But since NASA’s admitted that Mars may be outside their budget, would we perhaps hear about a SpaceX/NASA team up instead?

All we can do for now is wait for next week, to hear what these changes will be for sure.

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China’s Link Space Unveiled Design for a Reusable Rocket

Reusable Rockets

China’s first private rocket company has unveiled the design for a reusable space launch system, that works in a similar manner to SpaceX’s Falcon 9 booster. Link Space’s New Line 1 — otherwise known as Xin Gan Xian 1 — is a small launch vehicle that’s tailored for use in microsatellite and nanosatellite launches.

The Rockets That Put Us Into Space [INFOGRAPHIC]
Click to View Full Infographic

The two-stage liquid rocket will measure 66 feet in length, have a diameter of 5.9 feet, and will have a mass of 33 metric tons pre-launch. Its takeoff thrust of 400 kN will allow it to send around 440 pounds of equipment into a sun-synchronous orbit of between 155 and 342 miles.

Only the first stage of the New Line 1 rocket is reusable. However, Link Space has high hopes that a future iteration of the technology will also have a reusable second stage, making it even more desirable for commercial space programs.

Space Spending

It costs a huge amount of money to send things into space. However, reusable rockets like the New Line 1 can mitigate the costs substantially.

A brand new New Line 1 rocket costs $4.5 million to launch. However, reusing the first stage of the rocket drops the cost to just $2.25 million for subsequent launches. SpaceX’s Falcon 9 offers a cost reduction of around 30 percent when its first stage rocket is reused — although it’s capable of lifting much heavier payloads, so the actual price tag is far higher.

SpaceX is very cool and Falcon 9 is extremely great, we take SpaceX as our goal and guider, because there are too many advantages for us to learn,” said Link Space founder and CEO Hu Zhenyu in an interview with AstroWatch.

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SpaceX’s Dragon Capsule Was Recovered from the Pacific After a Successful Mission

SpaceX has now completed a dozen successful missions to resupply the International Space Station (ISS). The twelfth Dragon capsule was recovered after a successful splash landing in the Pacific Ocean yesterday after a month-long stay at the space station.

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The capsule brought an experimental supercomputer up to the station to test its performance in the harsh conditions of space. Also on board of the capsule was 2,900 kg (6,400 lbs) of food (including ice cream), Parkinson’s disease research materials, and other supplies to support the continuation of experiments.

The ISS astronauts didn’t send the Dragon back to Earth empty. The capsule hit the water filled with “science samples from human and animal research, biology and biotechnology studies, physical science investigations, and education activities,” according to a statement from NASA officials.

This was the last first-time launch of a Dragon capsule. SpaceX will, going forward, focus on using only refurbished capsules. The company launched and landed its first reused Dragon a few months ago in June, although the costs at that time did not save SpaceX any money. The organization is, however, hoping that further development will allow the reuse of rockets to be faster, more efficient, and progressively cost-effective.

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This Video Compilation of SpaceX’s Failed Landings Shows They’ve Embraced Lessons Learned

It’s Not Easy

More than two decades of the mid-20th century was dedicated to seeing humans in space. The world’s two biggest superpowers (figuratively) duked it out from 1957 – 1975 to gain supremacy in space technology. This era was, of course, defined by its successes — but these successes may not have been possible without the lessons learned from its disasters. The entire process was filled with dangerous attempts, made even more so by an incomplete understanding of the mechanics that make space travel possible. For example, on January 27, 1967, the three-astronaut team of Apollo 1 died horrifically in a routine ground test of their capsule.

Today’s incarnation of the space race has yet to reach the point where astronauts are involved, but we have plenty of examples of failed launches and landings. Just as our Cold War ancestors did before us, current engineers and scientists are learning from their mistakes to ensure that our species reaches both literal and figurative new heights.

Space Race 2.0

SpaceX likely realizes the utility of taking failures and learning from them. This is why they can post a video like the one above, which takes a lighthearted look at millions of dollars going up in flames. According to the BBC, the global space economy now sits at a whopping $329 billion, with three-quarters of the money coming from the private sector, a drastic change from the government-funded initiatives during the Cold War.

Yesterday, SpaceX’s CEO Elon Musk speculated that his company’s plans to continue working toward reusable rocket parts will eventually drop costs of launches by more than a factor of 100. These improvements and other upcoming innovations, like the Falcon Heavy and the manned Dragon missions, are made possible by the mistakes made at these early stages.

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Elon Musk: With New SpaceX Tech, Rocket Costs Will Drop By A Factor of 100

First, Reusability

Since the beginning, SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk has stressed the importance of making the company’s rockets reusable. After years of working to perfect the technology, SpaceX was finally able to reuse their Falcon 9 orbital rocket booster during a March 2017 launch. Then, they launched a couple of previously used boosters during a special weekend double-header a few months later.

Rocket reusability has now become SpaceX’s specialty, at least for their Falcon 9’s boost stage. While that’s already an achievement worth celebrating, Musk has predicted that full reusability will be the key to making SpaceX rocket launches less costly.

In a tweet sent during the wee hours of the morning today, Musk reiterated his assertion that making the Falcon 9’s upper stage (or second-stage) and fairing reusable would make launches 100 times cheaper.

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The tweet was accompanied by a blooper reel of sorts showing SpaceX’s bumpy road to perfecting primary stage reusability for the Falcon 9.

Then, Accessibility

SpaceX has been working on making their fairings — the cones that protect a rocket’s payload — reusable, and that begins by successfully landing and recovering the used cones. To that end, they’ve been testing the use of thrusters and steerable parachutes to keep the fairings intact from atmospheric re-entry until splash down. Musk has promised to get that sorted out before the end of this year.

As for the second-stage, Musk said that SpaceX might attempt their first recovery during the scheduled Falcon Heavy demo flight this November.

All of this trial and error requires a significant investment of time and money, but once SpaceX achieves full rocket reusability, the technology will usher in an era of truly democratized space exploration. As Musk said back in 2015, a fully reusable rocket “really is the fundamental breakthrough needed to revolutionize access to space.” Lowered costs for launching space probes would no doubt bolster our continued efforts to explore deep space.

Full rocket reusability is an essential part of SpaceX’s plans for Mars, too. As Vector Space Systems founder and CEO Jim Cantrell explained in a Quora post back in July, “Reusability is a great brand image generator, but, more importantly, it enables SpaceX to double their flight rate and make more money, all the while preparing for Mars landings with the reusability technology.”

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SpaceX Has Officially “Put Red Dragon on the Back Burner,” Delaying Mars Expedition

NASA has confirmed that SpaceX is making changes to their previously announced timeline for a manned mission to Mars. Jim Green, head of the agency’s planetary science division, acknowledged that NASA had been informed that Red Dragon was being put “on the back burner.”

Living Off The Land: A Guide To Settling Mars [Infographic]
Click to View Full Infographic

SpaceX was originally planning to make the journey to Mars in 2018, with NASA providing assistance with regards to navigation and communications as part of a Space Act Agreement between the two organizations. “We’d agreed to navigate to Mars, get [Elon Musk] to the top of the atmosphere, and then it was up to him to land,” said Green.

Initially, Red Dragon was expected to use a propulsion landing system to make its controlled descent onto the surface of Mars. However, when SpaceX confirmed in July 2017 that the craft would no longer have these capabilities, many observers wondered whether the Mars mission might miss its launch date.

spacex nasa mars elon musk
Image Credit: SpaceX

Back in June, Musk teased major changes to SpaceX’s mission to Mars, noting that updates could arrive as soon as September, so the expedition likely isn’t off the table entirely. What’s more, the CEO just revealed the space suits his company is developing for NASA, so that relationship seems to be as strong as ever.

Getting to Mars is no small feat, but even if SpaceX has to amend their course, the Red Planet appears to still be a big priority.

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Elon Musk Just Shared the First Photo of SpaceX’s Space Suits

This past weekend, SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk promised to reveal photos of the space suit his company has been developing for NASA. Musk revealed the first of these photos on his Instagram earlier today, and promised to show “[m]ore in days to follow.” First announced in 2015, it’s taken SpaceX almost two years to preview the design.

Elon Musk/Instagram

Musk says that what’s in the photo is an actual working space suit and not a mock up — perhaps referring to the one he wore in that Vogue photoshoot two years ago. The suit is also white rather than gray like the design Musk wore for the shoot.

While Musk admitted it was difficult to “balance esthetics and function,” the suit we see in the photo seems to fit the bill —  if not slightly reminiscent of the suits worn by soldiers in the video game Halo. Further evidence that SpaceX is making good on its promise to develop a space suit that looks like it belongs in the 21st century.

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In terms of function, Musk said the suit has already passed double vacuum pressure tests and “ocean landing mobility/safety tests” are underway. To be sure, SpaceX wants to have this space suit ready for what could be its first manned mission slated for 2018 — that lunar round trip paid for by two people. It’s also expected to see use for SpaceX’s missions under NASA’s Commercial Crew Program.

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NASA Chief: “There is More Going on Right Now in Space Than I’ve Ever Seen in My Career”

All Eyes on Space

It’s an exciting time for those interested in space and everything it has to offer us. Between our potential to travel in space and how much we’ve come to learn (and can still learn) from unmanned probes and satellites, it’s hard to not be hopeful for the future of our interest in the seemingly-boundless expanse that surrounds us.

NASA’s Acting Administrator Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. feels the same about the exploration of space. To him, the many plans, projects, and initiatives focused in this respect are well worth getting excited about.

“There is more going on right now in space than I’ve ever seen in my career,” he told Futurism.

It’s easy to empathize with this perspective. SpaceX, the company founded by Tesla CEO Elon Musk, plans to send astronauts to space in 2018, and recently helped deliver a supercomputer to the International Space Station. If that wasn’t enough space travel, it also has a highly-anticipated event slated for November: the first launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket.

At the same time, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos and his company Blue Origin are looking to make space travel more accessible by providing brief tours to everyday people. Their New Shepard capsule, while not meant to reach other planets, or even the Moon, is powerful enough to reach a suborbit, allowing passengers to see space. It’s expected to begin offering commercial flights next year.

In both public and private spaces, SpaceX and Blue Origin are often viewed as direct competitors, and as such it’s no secret that this is a race to see who makes it happen first. That said, there’s more competition when it comes to commercializing space travel, such as Virgin Galactic, which also hopes to put people in space next year.

“We are getting to space a little differently than we used to. It’s not just us anymore by ourselves,” said Lightfoot.

More Than Space Tours

Despite how committed private companies are, NASA isn’t leaving all the fun to them. Though it doesn’t have plans to send people on space tours, it still has probes and other spacecraft out there. Cassini, which recently sent back new data from Saturn as part of its final mission. There’s also the revival of New Horizons, a spacecraft that’s been dormant for the last several months that will now be used to investigate a mysterious object in the Kuiper Belt. Getting more people into space is enticing, but for now there are some places only a satellite is capable of reaching.

Our Eyes in Space: Highlighting all the Active Solar System Probes
Click to View Full Infographic

As for it’s own future developments, NASA has plans to improve upon the International Space Station, and its solar arrays, and the benefits of the refit may reach become a part of our quotidian lives. Known as the Roll Out Solar Array, or ROSA, this technology could make it far easier to transport and collect solar power. The tech could also improve services we’ve come to rely on, like GPS, weather forecasts, and satellite radio. ROSA still has a few quirks to work out, but it’s quickly on its way to becoming the most efficient solar array created.

Lightfoot is right to take note of how many things people have planned for space, and it feels like the momentum will lead to new developments and discoveries. Fingers crossed this trend doesn’t slow, and people continue to have an interest in space for years to come.

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Elon Musk: Photos of the SpaceX Space Suit Developed for NASA Are Coming Soon

Much of the buzz we’ve been hearing about SpaceX recently has been about unmanned spaceflights — including last week’s International Space Station re-supply mission for NASA. Indeed, the company has been so busy working on perfecting its reusable rocket technology that we may have forgotten it’s also preparing for the eventuality of sending humans to space.

SpaceX is actually developing what could be the next generation of space suits for NASA as part of its Commercial Crew Program. In a tweet on Saturday, CEO and founder Elon Musk said that we’ll soon get a glimpse of what the suits will look like:

In a Reddit AMA back in October of 2015, Musk said that SpaceX’s space suit “needs to both look like a 21st century spacesuit and work well.” If what Musk modeled in an interview with fashion magazine Vogue back in 2015 was similar to the prototype, then we can expect the suit to look very cool indeed. As for function, SpaceX is still conducting tests — as Musk mentioned in the tweet.

Could the “ocean landing mobility/safety tests” mean the suit is designed for exploration beyond the inside of a spacecraft? We’ll have to wait and see. SpaceX is slated for a loop around the Moon in 2018, which has already been paid for by two space tourists. If all goes according to plan, that trip could be the first time SpaceX’s suits will grace space.

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The 10 Most Significant Scientific Discoveries Of the Year (So Far)

The year 2017 has catapulted us into a science-fiction future, from human cell regeneration for growing organs, to banishing genetic disease through breakthrough gene-editing techniques and recycling orbital rockets — and it’s only August at the time of writing. A lot has happened in the last eight months; scientific breakthroughs have made our lives safer, easier and more enjoyable. And the scientific community is only getting started.

Researchers and scientists around the globe have worked tirelessly to bring us this future, so it’s worthwhile to take a step back and applaud their tremendous efforts. The world of tomorrow is being shaped as you read this, so let’s have a look at ten of the biggest stories in science of this year, so far.

Scientists Successfully Edited the First Human Embryo Ever in The U.S.

Image Source: Getty Images

Jul 27, 2017: Researchers in Portland, Oregon have achieved a significant breakthrough in gene-editing technology. Taking advantage of the revolutionary gene- editing technique, CRISPR, a gene linked to heart conditions was successfully “deleted” from a human embryo.

Read the full story here.

 

Scientists Have Finally Created Metallic Hydrogen

Image Source: Harvard University

January 27, 2017: For the first time in the wold, scientists created metallic hydrogen by applying almost five million atmospheres of pressure to liquid hydrogen. That’s about five million times the pressure we experience at sea level, and 4,500 times that at the bottom of the ocean. It is the first time a state of hydrogen has existed in a metallic state on Earth. In its metallic state, hydrogen could act as a genuine superconductor and could revolutionize everything from energy storage to rocketry.

Read the full story here.

 

Scientists Discovered an Alien Planet That’s The Best Candidate for Life As We Know It

Image Source: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle

On April 19 this year scientists at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research (ESO) found the best candidate for extraterrestrial life so far. The super-Earth named LHS 1140b was found in the habitable zone of a dim star 40 light-years away from Earth. It receives about half as much sunlight from its star, LHS 1140, as the Earth does from the Sun.

“This is the most exciting exoplanet I’ve seen in the past decade,” author Jason Dittmann of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics said in an ESO press release. “We could hardly hope for a better target to perform one of the biggest quests in science — searching for evidence of life beyond Earth.”

Read the full story here.

 

A World First CRISPR Trial Will Edit Genes Inside the Human Body

Image Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

June 1, 2017: In one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs of 2017, scientists used the gene-editing technology CRISPR (the most accessible gene-editing technique so far) inside the human body for the very first time. A new human trial aimed to remove the human papillomavirus (HPV) by applying a gel that carries the necessary DNA coding to the cervixes of 60 women to disable the tumor growth mechanism.

Read the full story here.

 

Breakthrough Initiative Will Grow Organs and Regenerate Human Tissue

Image Source: Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center

May 1, 2017: Major strides have been made in the field of regenerative medicine. The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine is currently leading projects to speed up the development of artificially growing human tissue and even organs in a lab to help patients worldwide. These new initiatives may one day repair nerve damage and even grow entire limbs and organs.

Read the full story here.

 

DeepMind Has Taught an AI to Do Something Quite Remarkable

Image Source: DeepMind/YouTube

July 11, 2017: Google’s artificial intelligence subsidiary DeepMind published a paper illustrating the way they are teaching AI computer agents to navigate complex environments. It may look funny to us, but it’s a big step forward for autonomous AI movement.

Read the full story here.

 

SpaceX’s Historic Launch Proves Recycled Rockets Are the Future of Space Exploration

March 30, 2017: SpaceX made space launch history in March by successfully relaunching and re-landing a used Falcon 9 rocket booster via rocket descent. This is the stuff of old-school scifi. Already having been the cheapest orbital rocket system, this breakthrough brought the affordability down even more — a saving of more than $18 million per launch.

Read the full story here.

 

This Fluid-Filled Bag Lets Lambs Develop Outside the Womb. Humans Are Next.

Image Source: Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

April 26, 2017: Physicians at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia have managed to imitate a woman’s uterus using a synthetic device in order to prevent mortality and disease of prematurely born children younger than 37 weeks.

Read the full story here.

 

A New Breakthrough in Quantum Computing is Set to Transform Our World

Image Source: Getty Images

July 28, 2017: A 51-qubit quantum computer was unveiled to the world at the 2017 International Conference on Quantum Technologies in Moscow, paving the way for a number of new possible applications of the technology.

Read the full story here.

 

Google’s AlphaGo Proves Its Mettle Against a Team of Five

 Image Source: AlphaGo/Deep Mind

May 29, 2017: After beating a human in the Computer Go game in 2016, Alphabet Inc.’s Google DeepMind computer took on five more of the world’s best human professional Go players and defeated them in earnest.

Read the full story here.

We’ve seen it for ourselves; whatever negativity 2017 might bring the world, this year has been one incredible leap after the other — and it’s still Summer.

The post The 10 Most Significant Scientific Discoveries Of the Year (So Far) appeared first on Futurism.

NASA: We Need Companies Like SpaceX for the Future of Space Exploration

A Different Path to Space

On Monday, August 14, SpaceX launched a resupply mission to the International Space Station (ISS). It was the 12th resupply flight SpaceX has done for NASA as part of its Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program, and the last one with an unused Dragon capsule. It has also been a month since Elon Musk’s rocket company flew to space, after a series of successful launches earlier this summer. This most recent CRS-12 flight was a special one, both for NASA and SpaceX, but also for the future of space exploration.

A great many recent rocket and spaceflight achievements have been made by commercial space companies like SpaceX and Orbital ATK (formerly Orbital Sciences). Both companies have been running CRS missions for NASA, as well as aeronautics giant Boeing. There’s also Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin which is also working on reusable rockets, Virgin Galactic with its more space tourism-focused approach, and many more space endeavor focused startups.

NASA acting administrator Robert Lightfoot, Jr. is convinced that these private, commercial companies are actually the future of space exploration — or at least, they’ll make it possible. “Today epitomizes what we have been doing for a long time in terms of building our commercial partnerships,” Lightfoot told Futurism after Monday’s launch. “We are getting to space a little differently than we used to. It’s not just us anymore by ourselves. We’ve got a great partnership with SpaceX. We’ve got a great partnership with Orbital ATK.”

The Survival of Space Programs

While commercial space companies may have their own plans for space exploration — most of which involve returning to the Moon and getting to Mars — it doesn’t mean that NASA doesn’t have plans of its own. In fact, NASA has been working on its own mission to Mars for a while now. The space agency is also currently building its own large rocket. However, recent developments suggest that NASA needs all the help it can get for its programs to survive.

Such a collaboration between NASA and commercial space agencies has been working well, Lightfoot noted. For one, it’s what’s made it possible for the ISS to continue operating. “They have allowed us to keep the space station going and allowed us to do some fantastic research,” he said, referring to SpaceX and Orbital ATK’s CRS missions.

Lightfoot also suggested that these partnerships could do so much more, like sending people to space again. ”SpaceX and Boeing will come along and allow us to fly [a] crew,” he said. “In a couple of years we will get there, and they will be getting crew to the station….this will give us our own access to space.” From there on, the possibilities could be endless.

Indeed, space exploration is entering a new era. It isn’t necessarily ending the era when space agencies were the only ones making giant leaps for mankind — only helping it. Collaboration is the future of space exploration.

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NASA’s New Tech Could Bring Power to People “In the Middle of Nowhere”

Holy Grail

Like an increasing number of people here on Earth, astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) rely on solar energy to meet their electricity needs. They use advanced solar arrays to gather this power, and while the system they currently use is adequate, NASA is eager to find new ways to improve its efficiency.

Piece by Piece: The International Space Station (INFOGRAPHIC)
Click to View Full Infographic

“We’ve been trying to get more efficiencies through solar arrays. That’s really the ‘holy grail,’” NASA’s acting administrator Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. tells Futurism. “You see, solar arrays are not very efficient.”

Typically, solar panels can only convert the Sun’s rays to electricity with an efficiency of about 25 percent. However, all kinds of attempts to improve this figure are underway, ranging from Japanese firm Kaneko’s record-breaking efforts earlier this year to a more recent research project out of Washington D.C. that pushed the upper boundary to 44.5 percent efficiency.

ROSA Rolls Out

NASA’s primary concern is advancing the capabilities of the ISS, as well as other off-world craft that need electricity while navigating space on exploratory missions. However, as Lightfoot notes, the advances made by this kind of research could have major benefits for those of us back on Earth.

“We did a flexible solar array recently with the last SpaceX launch. You give that to the military or anyone who lives in the middle of nowhere, roll it out, and you got power in a place where you didn’t have power,” he asserts.

Lightfoot is referring to the Roll Out Solar Array, better known as ROSA. The technology wraps a solar panel around a thin rod, forming a compact cylinder that’s easily stowed for launch and transport. When it’s time to deploy the panel, strain energy is used to unfurl it to full extension. The two-stage process only takes around 10 minutes.

nasa rosa spacex solar energy
ROSA at full extension, being held by a robotic arm. Image Credit: NASA

ROSA was designed to make solar energy available even in the difficult conditions experienced by space explorers. The fact that it’s easy to transport and straightforward to deploy means it could have all kinds of applications on Earth, particularly in situations where hauling traditional solar panels around is not practical.

However, rolling out ROSA on existing satellites could offer up benefits to Earth dwellers, too. According to NASA, the technology’s improvements to performance could help satellites provide better service for things like GPS, weather forecasting, and satellite radio and television broadcasts.

ROSA underwent a week-long trial in June, after which it was jettisoned following unsuccessful retraction attempts. Based on the results of the experiment, NASA still has some work to do, but the agency may well be on their way to reaching the “holy grail” of highly efficient solar arrays.

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SpaceX Just Completed Another Launch, Marking the End of an Era

Recycling the Dragon

Minutes ago, as SpaceX’s Dragon took off atop the Falcon 9 toward the ISS, an era ended. Concurrently, another was ushered in as smoke (don’t worry, it was the good kind) engulfed Launchpad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This is the same Pad that will be the center point for the Falcon Heavy, crewed flights, and potentially even the future Interplanetary Transport System.

Today’s launch – which brought more than 6,400 pounds of supplies, equipment, and science experiments to the Expedition 52 crew – was the first for SpaceX in more than a month. While it may just sound like another resupply mission for Elon Musk’s spaceflight company, it truly marked a shift in focus.

The craft used today will be the last new first-generation Dragon spacecraft to fly. In a NASA advisory meeting, Sam Scimemi, NASA Director for the ISS, discussed the upcoming SpaceX missions for 2017. He noted that all future CRS-1 launches from SpaceX will be conducted with reused capsules. After today, there are eight more contracted cargo missions through the first CRS program, which means eight more opportunities to reuse the Dragon 2.

Reallocating Resources

Since SpaceX will no longer be making the Dragon 1 spacecraft, resources can be reallocated toward the Dragon 2. This craft is designed to transport up to seven humans to the ISS or, someday, the Red Planet as a part of the Red Dragon Mission.

However, this Martian destination may not be set in stone. Musk recently tweeted, saying:

There was a time that I thought the Dragon approach to landing Mars, where you’ve got a base heat shield and side-mounted thrusters, would be the right way to land on Mars. Now I’m pretty confident that is not the right way and there’s a far better approach.

Musk’s tweet hints that the Red Dragon mission could be pushed back, or even cancelled from the original 2018 date. Even if the Dragon 2 won’t be taking the most precious cargo (i.e. humans) to the Red Planet, SpaceX is expected to have a cargo-only version of the craft for future resupply missions.

Suffice it to say, SpaceX fans have quite a bit to look forward to throughout the rest of the year, with the excitement (arguably) culminating in the maiden Falcon Heavy launch. The Dragon 1 that launched today will attempt to land on the LZ-1 pad, which is already being prepped for the dual booster landing of the Falcon Heavy this November. While the side boosters land on LZ-1, the core booster will attempt to touch down on SpaceX’s drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You.”

If all goes well, the most powerful operational rocket in the world will restore the possibility of flying missions with crew to the Moon or Mars in the very near future.

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SpaceX, NASA, and HP Are Sending a Supercomputer to the ISS

The Importance of 30 Minutes

The International Space Station is nearly twenty years old. During almost two decades in low-Earth orbit, the floating laboratory has offered the opportunity to test many a hypothesis in microgravity.

Often, these experiments have to do with biology and biochemistry. Take for instance studying the effects of space radiation on mammalian reproduction, or flatworm regeneration in microgravity. However, hardware also has a place in the lab.

The current computers on the ISS – the ones that operate the station – run on a microprocessor first introduced in 1985. That may not sound like enough to power the almost five-mile-long station however, these computers are supported by 24/7 monitoring from the ground by even more powerful computers.

Image Credit: NASA

The system does the job, for now. It doesn’t take long for information to travel from the ISS to the ground. However, when humans eventually get to the Red Planet, communicating between Mars and Earth will result in a bit of a delay. No, not quite a la The Martian. More like 30 minutes each way.

This may not sound like much, but, as Alain Andreoli, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise’s (HPE) senior vice president of its data center infrastructure group explained in a blog post:

A long communication lag would make any on-the-ground exploration challenging and potentially dangerous if astronauts are met with any mission critical scenarios that they’re not able to solve themselves.

Essentially, half an hour could cost someone their life.

Hardened Software

So why aren’t scientists just sending better computers to space? Well, space travel is pretty rough on technology, and NASA has high demands. Computers aboard the ISS need to withstand space-related problems such as “radiation, solar flares, subatomic particles, micrometeoroids, unstable electrical power, irregular cooling,” explained Andreoli. This “hardening” process results in additional costs and unnecessary bulk.

Image Credit: NASA

What if traditional, off-the-shelf computer components could be made to withstand the rigors of space? NASA and HPE are working together to find out. Monday, a SpaceX rocket will launch a supercomputer called the Spaceborne Computer to the ISS for a year-long experiment (coincidently, the amount of time it would take humans to get to Mars).

The computer has not been hardened for the radiation environment on the space station in the traditional sense. Instead, it’s been “software hardened.” The goal is to better understand how space will degrade the performance of an off-the-shelf computer. Meanwhile, back on Earth, an identical model will run in a lab as a control.

The computer is only about the size of two pizza boxes stuck together. It has a special water-cooled enclosure as well as custom software that can automatically adjust for environmentally-induced computer errors. It may not be the most powerful computer on the market, but with its 1 teraflop computing speed, it’ll be the most powerful computer ever sent into space.

If this experiment works, it opens up a universe of possibility for high performance computing in space.

“This goes along with the space station’s mission to facilitate exploration beyond low Earth orbit,” Mark Fernandez, HPE’s leading payload engineer for the project, told Ars Technica. “If this experiment works, it opens up a universe of possibility for high performance computing in space.”

Not only will this result in better computers aboard the ISS and other NASA crafts that can send humans farther into space, but it will also help with experiments on the ISS. Fernandez explains that scientists could use an on-board supercomputer for data processing, rather than sending the data back to Earth.

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Ghana Makes Historic Entrance Into the Space Race by Launching the Nation’s First Satellite

The new age of the revitalized Space Race has finally reached Africa. With a little help from SpaceX, Ghana has launched their first satellite. The small cubesat, GhanaSat1, was built by a team of engineers at All Nations University and was launched by SpaceX to the International Space Station (ISS) back in June. From there, the satellite was put into orbit in July and has recently become operational.

“This particular satellite has two missions,” project manager Richard Damoah told TechCrunch. “It has cameras on board for detailed monitoring of the coastlines of Ghana. Then there’s an educational piece―we want to use it to integrate satellite technology into high school curriculum.”

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This achievement is proof of the democratizing power of private enterprise like SpaceX. Being part of these launches opens countries with limited means up to entire new worlds of science. According to Elsie Kanza, Head of Africa at the World Economic Forum, “Several nations, such as South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya and Ethiopia have space agencies. Angola announced its intention to launch a satellite over the coming year.”

As humanity saw from the first Space Race, competition fuels better science. With more nations joining the fold of space exploration, the field widens to new, untold possibility.

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What Would a Failed Falcon Heavy Launch Mean for SpaceX?

The Risk of Failure

Elon Musk is tentative about the November launch of his Falcon Heavy rocket — which the SpaceX website states “restores the possibility of flying missions with crew to the Moon or Mars“. He voiced his concerns at a discussion at the International Space Station Research and Development conference. Musk stated that there is a “real good chance that that vehicle does not make it to orbit. I want to make sure to set expectations accordingly. I hope it makes it far enough away from the pad that it does not cause pad damage — I would consider even that a win, to be honest.”

Experts have agreed with Musk’s position. Dr. Robert Zubrin, President of Pioneer Astronautics and a key figure in NASA’s plan to send a manned mission to Mars, told The Daily Caller News Foundation that “my prediction would be that Falcon 9 will fail at least twice before it fully succeeds, but that Musk will push on regardless until it does. He’s got the right stuff.”

The problem with the Falcon Heavy is that it has to ignite three times as many cores simultaneously as its predecessor, the Falcon 9 — which itself failed five times before it landed successfully. In addition, it is extremely difficult to model how every component of the rocket will respond to the power, g-force, and vibration that such a launch requires — its a hairsbreadth art, which Musk stated at the ISS meeting is “really difficult to test on the ground.”

The Cost of Failure

Perhaps the more important question, though, is what would the consequences be if the project did fail — what would a less-than-perfect launch mean for SpaceX’s ambitions and Musk’s cosmic dreams?

A Reddit post has been discussing the implications, with interesting and varied answers. A common thread is that the worst scenario would be losing a launch pad. The SLC-40 launchpad repairs are still ongoing, so losing another launch pad has the potential not only to impair the Falcon Heavy’s launch schedule, but SpaceX’s entire launch manifest.

Gen_Zion pointed out that, “this is the only pad which is being prepared for Crew launch” — meaning that it would also cause problems for SpaceX’s highly anticipated human missions to the moon and Mars.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Some users, however, argue that Musk’s comments are part of a game of expectation management and, due to the potentially colossal scope of failure, that “they won’t launch FH unless they have a high confidence in its success,” as Euro_Snob wrote.

User bumblyburg’s argument goes that if they weren’t confident that the rocket would move away from the launchpad, “the risk-reward ratio is just foolish.” A testament to this view is that one or two more launches have been planned for April 30th, 2018.

Despite what happens in November, the single resolving factor will be that the company will learn from failure and subsequently be able improve the technology. As the late, great, Henry Ford, once said in an interview with The Magazine of Business, “failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.”

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See How SpaceX Plans to Launch the Falcon Heavy This November

SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk took to Instagram earlier today to post the first draft animation video showing a Falcon Heavy launching into space. “[Falcon Heavy] is twice the thrust of the next largest rocket currently flying and ~2/3 thrust of the Saturn V moon rocket,” Musk wrote in the Instagram post.

Nearly three times as powerful as the Falcon 9, the Heavy features three rocket cores, with two acting as strap-on boosters on the sides. Each booster carries nine Merlin engines, enough to generate “more than five million pounds [2.3 million kg] of thrust at lift-off,” according to SpaceX. And, as the animation video shows, these cores are all built to be fully reusable.

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As Musk previously announced in July, the Falcon Heavy is set for its highly anticipated maiden launch this November. When it successfully lifts off, it’ll become the most powerful rocket available today.

However, as Musk noted in his post, there’s a “lot that can go wrong in the November launch.” For instance, each rocket core has to be able to return and land successfully. That’s like landing three Falcon 9s at the same time, and we all know how difficult it has been to perfect just one landing.

Still, the world looks forward with hope as the success of the Falcon Heavy launch would put SpaceX one step closer to realizing their plans for missions to Mars.

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SpaceX Helped Tesla Speed Up Their Car Production, Elon Musk Revealed

Innovation Overflows

Tesla’s second-quarter earnings for 2017 are in. That means there’s also a bunch of updates and sneak-peaks inside the company’s world of innovation. These tidbits more often than not come from CEO and founder Elon Musk himself, and this time, he revealed an interesting detail about SpaceX.

Yes, that’s no typo. After some investors asked how innovation at SpaceX (which is also run by Musk) could be applied to Tesla, Musk recalled a particular instance when it actually happened. It’s not about rocket propulsion or anything of the sort, of course. Instead, Musk talked about how SpaceX helped fix a major issue in Tesla cars that resulted in saving eight hours of work per vehicle.

Image credit: Tesla
Image credit: Tesla

Jon McNeill, Tesla President of Global Sales and Services, supplied the details. “We had a challenge in service just over the past week where we needed to determine the quality of an object deep within our structure, an aluminum casting. That’s something that SpaceX knows how to do,” he said during the earnings call. “Our team reached out to the SpaceX team, the SpaceX team provided us with some ultrasonic sensors so we could quickly take corrective action.”

The Perks of Running Both

This was made possible because both SpaceX and Tesla are run by the same person. But just as much as this collaboration is about Musk, it’s due due to the kind of work being done by both companies. Each one’s determined to build better products — cars for Tesla and rockets for SpaceX. That determination makes it necessary, and even inevitable, for both to share research behind building their materials.

“This cross-fertilization of knowledge from the rocket and spacecraft industry to auto and back and forth I think has really been quite valuable,” Musk said during the call. It’s a shortcut, really. Tesla and SpaceX need not look far for support when it comes to the “high-volume manufacturing of something that has to be extremely reliable,” Musk said. The same can be seen in how Musk’s relatively newer tunnel-digging venture has been depending on SpaceX for its tunneling machine.

Image credit: SpaceX
Image credit: SpaceX

For Tesla and SpaceX, this combination of minds is obviously a benefit — one that could help ensure the quality of materials and products developed by both. It’s certainly not impossible for SpaceX’s rockets to run a similar autonomous system found in Tesla’s vehicles. Who knows?

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Both SpaceX and Boeing Are on Track to Launch Astronauts Into Space in 2018

Dragon 2 vs. Starliner

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) retired the space shuttle in 2011, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t getting ready to send astronauts into space. On July 20, the space agency published the latest sharable 2018 schedule of their Commercial Crew Program. The program is designed to enable the agency to launch crewed craft from U.S. soil via SpaceX’s Crew Dragon (Dragon 2) and Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner. The two companies say their efforts remain on track for test flights that may be less than a year away.

The World’s Top Space Agencies [INFOGRAPHIC]
Click to View Full Infographic

Both companies were awarded Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts by NASA in September 2014. Under those terms, they each must fly uncrewed test flights of their spacecraft, followed by crewed flights.

SpaceX’s most recent schedule reveals an uncrewed test flight in February 2018 and a crewed test flight in June 2018. Boeing is right on SpaceX’s heels, with uncrewed and crewed flights set for June and August 2018, respectively.

Originally, both companies planned to be certified for crewed missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by the close of 2017. However, each has suffered various technical setbacks, such as the Dragon 2’s need to move away from powered landings, resulting in changes to the schedules.

NASA’s ISS program manager, Kirk Shireman, is confident that the companies will be able to send astronauts into space. “Commercial crew is making great progress,” he asserted during a speech at the ISS Research and Development Conference, and both SpaceX and Boeing also appear sure of their abilities to stick to the revised schedules that are now in place.

A New Era in Space

The importance of this commercial space race can’t be overstated, as companies like SpaceX and Boeing are poised to change the face of everything from research to commercial travel as they propel the human race off-world.

Private companies can dramatically lower the cost of space exploration for agencies. Boeing is designing and building DARPA’s XS-1 experimental space plane, set to be in the air by 2020, and if that project goes as expected, it will lower launch costs and make the dream of launch-on-demand a reality.

Meanwhile, SpaceX formally called for the government to implement a public-private collaboration for deep space missions soon after NASA announced that it couldn’t afford to get us to Mars — if implemented, such a plan could enable NASA to get us there after all.

Soon, these lowered costs could make space travel a reality for private citizens as well as trained astronauts. As of May, Virgin Galactic was looking forward to launching their first commercial spaceflights before the end of 2018. With Blue Origin, SpaceX, and others joining them, the global space tourism market could be worth more than $34 billion by 2021.

Both SpaceX and Boeing Are on Track to Launch Astronauts Into Space by the End of 2018

Commercial agencies are proving capable of far more than their government counterparts. SpaceX’s COO announced at the end of June that the company would produce 20 rockets this year — something unheard of for NASA. Other private companies are working to develop new technologies for use in the space race, such as the proposed electric space tug that could make Moon flights far more economical.

Beyond bringing more people and scientific research into space, commercial companies are hoping to move manufacturing off-world. Axiom Space plans to make the first commercial space station a manufacturing hub, which will help the station pay for itself and make it easier to supply new missions.

Clearly, the entry of multiple private companies into the space race has yielded some major dividends already, and this is just the beginning.

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The Falcon Heavy Maiden Launch Will be in November, Elon Musk Announced

In six short words on an Instagram post Elon Musk announced the next step of SpaceX’s plan to eventually fly humans to Mars: “Falcon Heavy maiden launch this November.” The announcement means that the launch will be a little later than earlier predictions: Musk tweeted in June that “all Falcon Heavy cores should be at the Cape [Canaveral Air Force Station] in two to three months, so launch should happen a month after that.”

Falcon Heavy maiden launch this November

A post shared by Elon Musk (@elonmusk) on

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If the Falcon Heavy test is successful it will become the most powerful operational rocket in the world: using 27 Merlin rocket engines spread across three falcon 9 cores, it would have a liftoff thrust of 2.3 million kg (5 million lb) that is capable of carrying 54,000 kg (119,000 lb) into orbit — this is twice the payload of the next largest rocket, Delta IV Heavy, and SpaceX claim it will cost 66 percent less to deliver.

Musk followed his announcement by divulging a few extra details via Twitter. He clarified SpaceX’s plans to retrieve and potentially reuse the rocket’s boosters, later qualifying the ambitious goals by adding, “If we are lucky”

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Musk’s cautious optimism mirrored his previous remarks to a crowd at the International Space Station Research and Development Conference in Washington, “There’s a real good chance that that vehicle does not make it to orbit. I want to make sure to set expectations accordingly.”

The next few months should be exciting for Musk on a number of other fronts as well: he has identified September as when updates on his plan to reach Mars will arrive, the Tesla Model 3 will continue to ramp up production, and the Boring Company will continue to make progress towards decreasing congestion in Los Angeles after its first elevator test earlier this week.

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Elon Musk Fuels Speculation With Cryptic Clue About New Vehicle

A Mystery Machine

When its founder and CEO, Elon Musk, confirmed that SpaceX is abandoning the plan to use a powered Dragon landings for Mars, it didn’t come as a surprise. Musk had previously announced that the initial ideas for SpaceX’s Mars mission had been reviewed and changes were coming.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

The original plan included testing a Dragon 2 capsule for surface landings on Mars, supposedly by 2020. Last week, Musk announced during the International Space Station Research and Development Conference that SpaceX has scrapped the design that put landing legs on the Dragon 2 capsule. However, this didn’t mean that SpaceX would no longer do power landings on Mars.

“[The] plan is to do powered landings on Mars for sure, but with a vastly bigger ship,” Musk said on a tweet. Currently, SpaceX’s space capsules are capable of splashdown landings, but surface landings are more ideal for missions to Mars.

Throwing a bone to SpaceX redditors, Musk revealed yet another detail.

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The cryptic post has been making a buzz on the SpaceX Reddit, and some have offered their interpretations as to what this nine-meter (30-foot) diameter machine could be. One possibility is that it could be the Boring Company’s tunneling machine, as the current standard tunnel diameter is roughly 8.53 meters (28 ft).

However, it’s highly unlikely that Musk was referring to a tunneling machine. Keep in mind that the Boring Company’s plan is to reduce the standard tunnel diameter in half or “less than 14 feet,” as it says in its website. “Reducing the diameter in half reduces tunneling costs by 3-4 times.”

A Surprise for September

So, if not a tunneling machine, what else could it be? A more interesting suggestion is that SpaceX may be building a smaller version of its Interplanetary Transport System (ITS). Musk has said that they plan on keeping the costs of making and maintaining rockets reasonable — or, at the very least, at par with the $200,000 per person cost of getting on a flight to the Red Planet. Could a mini-ITS be that solution?

“[Nine] meters is 3/4 of the size of the 12 meter full sized ITS,” one redditor commented. “There also happened to be 4 layers of engines in the original ITS design. I would guess that this is basically an ITS with the outer layer of 21 engines removed. A 50 percent scale vehicle. Still the most powerful rocket in history, and [roughly] 50 percent more powerful than [the Space Launch System].”

Whether Musk is building a smaller ITS, the Boring Company’s tunneling machine, or something else entirely, we won’t know for sure until he reveals what this really is all about. We need not wait that long, though, as Musk said that all will be revealed at this year’s International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in September.

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The serial entrepreneur is scheduled to speak on the final day (Sept. 29) of this event to be held in Adelaide, Australia. It was during the IAC back in 2016 that Musk first unveiled SpaceX’s plans to make humanity into a multi-planetary species.

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SpaceX is Abandoning Plans for Powered Dragon Landing, Elon Musk Announced

Change Of Plans

SpaceX has abandoned its plans to equip future versions of the Dragon spacecraft to undertake powered landings. This change will affect long-term plans for Mars, as CEO Elon Musk acknowledged to the International Space Station Research and Development Conference on Wednesday.

The Dragon spacecraft that is currently under development for NASA’s commercial crew program will use SuperDraco thrusters only as a launch abort system, not to land on any surfaces. During a Q&A session, Musk replied to questions about Dragon’s propulsive landing capabilities by saying, “It was a tough decision. Technically it still is, although you’d have to land it on some pretty soft landing pad because we’ve deleted the little legs that pop out of the heat shield.”

Image Credit: SpaceX
Image Credit: SpaceX

Safety certification issues for propulsive landings were behind the cancellation of the plans to transition away from water landings and toward propulsion-assisted landings on solid ground. “It would have taken a tremendous amount of effort to qualify that for safety, particularly for crew transport,” Musk said.

Bigger Red Picture

Additionally, the overall goal of SpaceX is now to land larger spacecraft on Mars to further the long-term goal of getting humans on Mars. “There was a time that I thought the Dragon approach to landing Mars, where you’ve got a base heat shield and side-mounted thrusters, would be the right way to land on Mars,” Musk said during the session. “Now I’m pretty confident that is not the right way and there’s a far better approach.”

The alternative approach will also use a version of propulsive landing:

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SpaceX’s new plans for the Falcon Heavy have recently evolved, and it makes sense to consolidate the costs of this kind of landing in a larger spacecraft. This change may also have either pushed back or canceled the Red Dragon mission, which was originally intended to land a Dragon 2 spacecraft on the surface of Mars.

We’ll all be eagerly awaiting more updates, possibly presented in Adelaide, Australia at September’s International Astronautical Congress meeting. In the meantime, it’s Twitter and the Cape to watch the Falcon Heavy.

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Elon Musk Just Shared an Update on SpaceX’s Upcoming Manned Mars Mission

The Falcon Heavy

At the ISS R&D conference today, Elon Musk provided some much-anticipated updates on SpaceX’s upcoming manned mission to the Red Planet, explaining that the trip hinges on the success of the company’s Falcon Heavy.

Once it launches this year, the Falcon Heavy will be the most powerful operational rocket in the world. It will be able to lift more than 54 metric tons (119,000 lbs), which is twice the payload of the Delta IV Heavy at one-third the cost.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Developing the rocket wasn’t easy. In fact, Musk says it was “way, way more difficult” than SpaceX originally anticipated.

“[Falcon Heavy] requires the simultaneous ignition of 27 orbit class rockets,” he explained. Because of this, Musk says there is a “lot of risk associated with Falcon Heavy,” which is why he is setting the bar for success rather low for initial launches: “There’s a real good chance that it does not make it to orbit. I hope it gets far enough away from the launch pad that it does not cause pad damage – I would consider that a win.”

Problems with initial launches won’t be due to any inherent flaws with the rocket itself, however; they’re just part of the process. “Falcon Heavy’s going to be a great vehicle. [There] just isn’t a lot you can test on the ground,” Musk noted.

SpaceX has experienced a fair share of (fiery) failures in the past, and the potential for problems with early Falcon Heavy launches had the SpaceX CEO joking about the character of the crew members aboard the first manned missions: “No question, whoever’s on the first flight… brave. Brave.”

The Crew Dragon

Other “brave” SpaceX explorers will eventually be able to enjoy a trip aboard the company’s Crew Dragon, also known as Dragon 2. Thus far, the Dragon spacecraft has only been used to transport cargo, but the design is being modified to support crewed mission. In fact, the Dragon 2 could even eventually carry Musk, who replied, “I would like to at some point. Assuming things work out, yeah, maybe in three or four years,” when asked whether he’d like to take a ride to the International Space Station (ISS) and back aboard the craft.

Also in the works for the Crew Dragon are orbital launches and testing of its automatic docking abilities. Currently, in order for the Dragon to attach to the ISS, the space station’s robotic arm has to be used. Not of much importance, according to a comment by Musk, is refining the Dragon’s 2 purposive landing capability (i.e., descending using retrorockets vs. a parachute) as he claims it’s no longer a requirement for landing on Mars.

The real public excitement lies beyond the ISS and Mars missions, though, according to Musk. “If you want to get the public real fired up, we gotta have a base on the Moon. Having some permanent presence on another heavenly body,” he said. “That’s the continuance of the dream of Apollo.”

Some of the biggest players already in the race to build a Moon base hail from China and Europe, and their respective space agencies have announced that they are engaging in international collaboration to realize a “Moon Village” vision. Whether Musk will beat them to it remains to be seen.

This trickle of small updates will do little to pacify those eager for more details on Musk’s mission to Mars. That information is likely to arrive in September in the form of a revision to his detailed plan for making humanity a multi-planetary species. The efforts of SpaceX are now more vital than ever, given NASA’s recent admission that they won’t be the ones to get us to the Red Planet, but perhaps the plan will include the announcement of a NASA/SpaceX collaboration?

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NASA: On Social Media? Apply to Attend the Next SpaceX Launch

This August, a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket will launch the 14th Dragon spacecraft from Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center. This launch, targeted for August, will be the 12th commercial cargo resupply services mission to the International Space Station. In addition to supplies and equipment, Dragon will deliver several science investigations to the station.

Oh, and you’re invited.

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NASA is inviting 40 social media users to attend the two day event, culminating in the historic launch. Accepted applicants will have the opportunity to experience everything from the “front lines.” This includes a tour of the NASA facilities at Kennedy Space Center, the opportunity to speak with representatives from NASA and SpaceX, and a chance to visit the rocket at the Launch Complex.

SpaceX continues to make great strides in decreasing the cost of spaceflight through the use of reusable rocket technology. The company recently completed three successful launches in less than two weeks. In the future, they’ll even bring private citizens to the Moon, and to Mars. 

Don’t miss your chance to be a part of history. The deadline to apply is tomorrow (July 19, 2017).

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Elon Musk Is Right. ULA Receives $1B From the Government, but Is It a Subsidy?

The Billion Dollar Myth?

On July 13, Elon Musk posted a graph on Twitter that showed SpaceX was completely cornering the commercial rocket market. Musk specifically highlighted the fact that his venture is entirely privately funded while other major companies listed get billions of dollars in grants each year despite a profound lack of launches.

About 11 years ago, two of these companies — Boeing and Lockheed Martin — merged to become the United Launch Alliance (ULA). Tory Bruno, President and CEO of the ULA, disagreed with Musk on Twitter, calling the billion dollar subsidy a “myth.” The tweet has since been deleted. Futurism reached out to ULA for comment at 1:53PM ET, and noted the presence of the tweet not long after. It was removed by 2:30 PM ET.

*5* Data Supports Elon Musk’s Claim that ULA Receives “Billion Dollar Subsidy”
The tweet from Bruno that was later deleted. Credit: Twitter

Today, Futurism received documentation that shows ULA does indeed receive this amount of money. According to the Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY) 2018  Budget Estimates:

  • The Air Force budgeted $737.273M for ULA’s ELC in FY17 and $918.609M in FY18 (p. 105).
  • These Air Force contributions represent only 75 percent of the total ELC funding to ULA. The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) funds the remaining 25 percent.
  • Thus, the full combined AF/NRO ELC financial contribution to ULA is $983.031M in FY17 and $1.224B in FY18.

It would seem that the biggest argument here isn’t about cost, though. It’s more about the definition of a subsidy. Is the $1.224B indeed a subsidy as Musk originally asserted?

An Opposing Argument

One of the primary reasons this funding is needed, as discussed in the 2016 ELC contract itself, is the high cost of maintaining a large workforce and the constant depreciation of launch vehicles. An article from Teslarati points out the specifics:

Due to contracting, ULA is required to maintain both the workforce and facilities necessary to produce and launch Delta vehicles, in spite of having nearly no “business” thanks to Atlas V. Maintaining a workforce and set of facilities that is in part or whole redundant is not efficient or cost-effective, but it is contractually required. So, while the ELC contract Musk deemed a nearly pointless subsidy does have some major flaws, inefficiencies, and illogical aspects, it is not technically correct to label it a subsidy.

Futurism reached out to ULA for a comment on the tweet and above data. A ULA representative referred us to a 2016 op-ed for SpaceNews on the topic in which Bruno addressed the criticism:

Critics have asserted that ULA receives $800 million per year in a contract “for doing nothing,” stating that it was a “retainer” or “subsidy” for ULA to “stay in business” for the Air Force. This is untrue and reveals a fundamental lack of understanding of this innovative contracting mechanism.

Whether or not ULA would still receive this payment despite a lack of actual launches is not clear.

Regardless of how the money is labeled, however, SpaceX is still leading the launch race. In addition to launching rockets with an ever-increasing frequency over the next few years, Musk also plans to launch 4,000 satellites to provide the world with unilateral internet coverage and continue work on his mission to terraform Mars.


Editor’s Note: This article was updated to reflect the fact that the tweet was deleted after Futurism contacted ULA. 

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Elon Musk Buys x.com Domain from PayPal

Musk’s New Purchase

This past Friday, Elon Musk got a little bit cryptic on Twitter:

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So what does this mean? Well, this questionable comment came after a late night tweet announcing the launch of x.com.

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If you go to the site itself, you won’t be met by much more than one single, solitary “x.” The website is launched, but far from complete — however, it’s apparently been a long time coming. In the 90’s, Musk founded an online payment company called X.com. This startup is what later became Paypal. The domain x.com has — since it was acquired by the massive payment company — belonged to . Before the formal launch, Musk announced that he’d bought back the domain, and implied that x.com is currently just a sentimental purchase for him.

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An Open Future

Musk’s tweets may well be a completely transparent commentary on his purchase. Maybe x.com really is just a sentimental memento from one of his early successes. Of course, knowing Musk’s reputation and history, there could certainly be far more to it than that. Maybe the website will just be a place to access information about all of Musk’s ventures? Maybe it will reveal an entirely new endeavor? It’s anyone’s guess at this early stage, but as Musk is not one to waste (reusable rockets, anyone?) it wouldn’t be a surprise to see something crop up on the url soon.

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SpaceX Asks the U.S. To Fund a Public-Private Partnership for Deep Space Exploration

Working Together

Some 10 years back now, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decided to work with private space companies to ferry people and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS). At the time, the space agency perhaps didn’t expect that it was heralding in a new era in space exploration.

Both NASA and private agencies like SpaceX and Blue Origin have benefited from the collaboration. The former is able to save on costs, while the latter get to pursue their own individual programs, such as perfecting their reusable rocket technologies for commercial use. Without this partnership, these companies would not have been able to grow and develop at the same rate.

Thus far, the joint missions have been limited to just orbital and near-orbit launches, like the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program, but SpaceX wants that to change.

At a hearing of the U.S. Senate’s Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness on Thursday, SpaceX’s senior vice president for global business and government affairs Tim Hughes asked the U.S. government to open up deep space exploration for similar public-private partnerships. “The principles applied in past programs for low Earth orbit capability can and should be applied to deep space exploration,” he said, referencing the COTS program.

A Deep Space Future

In order for the U.S. and for humankind to establish a more permanent presence in space, Hughes asserts that the government should fund a COTS-like program for deep space. It won’t really be a matter of funding the competition, he argued, because the program could run parallel to NASA’s existing deep space exploration plans, such as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion spacecraft.

Living Off The Land: A Guide To Settling Mars [Infographic]
Click to View Full Infographic

“I think [these] can be readily supplemented with public-private partnerships to allow us to sustain a permanent presence in space,” said Hughes. NASA could impose “high level requirements” for this deep space partnership, just like it does with COTS, Hughes added.

The partnership could prove particularly beneficial for NASA right now given the recent reports saying it doesn’t have the funding needed for its Mars mission.

Of course, as with any change, push back is to be expected. For one, more established aerospace firms that already work with NASA — Lockheed Martin and Boeing, among others — might not be in favor of this idea. The important thing, however, is to realize that deep space exploration is an entirely different ballgame than missions in near-Earth orbit, and the best chance of success may come from pooling our resources.

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NASA Just Announced They Can’t Afford to Get Humans to Mars

Budget Bummer

NASA has been talking about getting humans to Mars for years, and continues to provide updated plans for getting there. Unfortunately, though, NASA’s chief of human spaceflight, William H. Gerstenmaier, just announced that the agency can’t achieve the Mars goal on its current budget.

“I can’t put a date on humans on Mars, and the reason really is the other piece is, at the budget levels we described, this roughly 2 percent increase, we don’t have the surface systems available for Mars,” Gerstenmaier said during a propulsion meeting of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics on Wednesday. “And that entry, descent, and landing is a huge challenge for us for Mars.”

Essentially, the SLS rocket and Orion craft have cost the agency a lot. As a result, NASA hasn’t even been able to begin designing vehicles to land on Mars or ascend from the surface.

NASA’s next moves will depend on funding. Gerstenmaier indicated the agency might be interested in a Moon exploration mission – one that is more extensive than the current plan to build the Deep Space Gateway in the Moon’s orbit. Beyond just being a launching pad for further space exploration, the gateway could “support an extensive moon surface program,” says Gerstenmaier.

A Team Effort

Fortunately for our Red Planet dreams, it isn’t just up to NASA. Getting humans to Mars is a team effort. Agencies like NASA are really at the mercy of political moods and budgetary restraints, so they need to do as much as they can with what resources are there. One way they can maximize impact is to partner with private companies.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

This month Elon Musk announced we might be getting an update about the SpaceX Mars mission in September at the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Australia. For now, though, SpaceX has set a deadline of 2018 for an unmanned Mars mission and 2025 for a manned mission. Both Boeing and Blue Origin are also planning to put humans on Mars. It may turn out that the “we” in Vice President Pence’s remarks about putting American boots on Mars is the larger American “we,” and not the government or NASA.

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Elon Musk Sets September as a Target for the Next Mission to Mars Update

Elon Musk is a busy man. Tesla just rolled out the very first of its Model 3 cars and landed a contract to build the world’s most powerful battery in Australia. The Boring Company just started digging under Los Angeles. And SpaceX, well, they’ve been busy launching reusable rockets into orbital missions.

Despite all this going on here on Earth, Musk still has his eyes fixed on Mars. The serial entrepreneur is determined to make humanity a multi-planetary species, but we might have to wait until the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in September for an update on that front, according to a reply Musk sent to an inquisitive Twitter user.

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Last month, Musk teased updates to SpaceX’s initial mission to Mars plan, which was published earlier in June. Back then, he hinted that one of the things being reviewed is the cost of developing and operating a big rocket — referring to the Big F*cking Rocket (BFR) — to ferry the Interplanetary Transport System (ITS) into space.

This is crucial, especially now that Musk has set a target price on the cost of going to Mars: $200,000 per person. The updates might come in certain structural changes to the designs of the BFR and the ITS that could help ensure that this price point is met. After that, it will just be a matter of saving up the funds if you want to be one of the first humans to reach the Red Planet.

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SpaceX Just Successfully Launched the Third Falcon 9 in Less Than Two Weeks

Yesterday SpaceX launched another Falcon 9 successfully, the third in 12 days. The rocket took off from the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This makes three successful launches in less than two weeks for SpaceX, with the first two on June 23 and 25.

Yesterday’s Intelsat 35e mission was originally set for Sunday, but then automatically aborted with only 10 seconds remaining in the countdown by a failsafe. There was no technical flaw with the rocket; the abort was triggered by a problem with the limits on the rocket guidance systems. Before the launch yesterday, Elon Musk tweeted that everything was ready to go:

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This launch sent a Boeing communications satellite built by Intelsat — a SpaceX client — into orbit. About 30 minutes after launch, the Intelsat 35e satellite successfully reached its targeted geostationary transfer orbit.

If the rocket looked a little different to you than the others recently in use, you’re right. The payload is one of the heaviest ever sent into orbit aboard a Falcon 9, weighing in at about 5,900 kg (13,000 pounds). This heavy payload ruled out an attempt to recover the first stage of the rocket, so there were neither grid fins nor landing legs installed on it. You can see the launch (starting at the countdown) here:

These closely spaced launches are a part of SpaceX’s strategy of using reusable rockets to not only lower the cost of space travel, but also to lower the turnaround time for launches. This, coupled with SpaceX’s expansion into heavier payloads, will eventually mean more frequent and affordable space travel for everyone.

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SpaceX is Launching Its Third Mission in Just Nine Days

Hefty Launch

SpaceX is gearing up for yet another launch into space this weekend — weather-permitting. Sunday’s launch will be the third for SpaceX in just nine days, and the 39th Falcon 9 rocket launch. The mission is to put a massive communications satellite into orbit for the company Intelsat. Takeoff is scheduled for tonight at 7:36 PM EDT from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. You can watch the launch live at Space.com.

What sets this launch apart from the other recent missions is that the client is not interested in utilizing reusable rocket tech. Ken Lee, senior vice president for space systems for Intelsat said, “I would have no qualms about using the pre-flown hardware in the future once they have fully demonstrated their reusability,” which he defines as “[t]ypically…a minimum of three.” As of now, SpaceX has managed to launch and land a reusable rocket twice. Also, given the heft of the satellite, the booster will not have enough fuel to make the journey back to the surface.

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Burning Through the Backlog

SpaceX did have a sizable backlog of planned launches due to the unfortunate catastrophe where a Falcon 9 rocket exploded at launch. However, in the first half of 2017, SpaceX has already broken its previous record for launches in a single year. They are planning for a total of 20 launches before the end of 2017. This is important to Intelsat, and likely other entities looking to use SpaceX’s tech to get into space. “What’s important for us is not whether you launch every other week, but [that] once you plan, you execute to that plan,” Lee said.

SpaceX is well on its way to definitively proving the reliability of their rockets. While the price difference of using the reusable boosters may not be enough at this time for Intelsat, the price difference will continue to drop as the rockets continue to be reused. SpaceX is pioneering in this field and is revolutionizing what it takes to get into space.

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SpaceX COO Claims the Company Will Produce 20 Rockets in 2017

SpaceX has no plans to relax following their recent successful weekend doubleheader. Serial entrepreneur Elon Musk’s space venture company is already looking ahead, beginning with a final upgrade to their Falcon 9 rocket scheduled for later this year.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

“We are flying Block 3s right now,” SpaceX president and COO Gwynne Shotwell said during a June 22 appearance on the online radio program The Space Show. “Block 4s start flying shortly, and then Block 5 at the end of this year. We definitely have gotten better [at] more smooth introducing of change. You don’t see the big impacts to production we’ve had before when we’ve changed vehicle designs.”

Block 5 is going to be the definitive version for the Falcon 9, Shotwell explained, and it is capable of being relaunched “a dozen or so times.” It would also not require refurbishing — the reusable rocket would simply undergo inspections prior to launch.

Shotwell said during her radio show appearance that SpaceX’s much larger Falcon Heavy’s first mission in 2018 will be carrying a payload for Arabsat. “We’ll be flying Arabsat to [geostationary transfer orbit] on the second Falcon Heavy flight, and then we’ll be flying STP-2, an Air Force mission,” she said. In total, the Falcon Heavy has three missions scheduled in the next 18 months, the first being a demonstration later in 2017.

SpaceX has much more planned for the months to come, including that commercial Moon roundtrip. “Three years ago or so we were producing six rockets a year,” Shotwell said. “This year we are going to produce more than 20.” When you consider that reusability is a key element of SpaceX’s design, you can imagine just how many missions those rockets will be capable of handling in the coming years.

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Elon Musk Says SpaceX Rockets Will Be Capable of Indefinite Launches Without Being Serviced

Indefinite Launches

Elon Musk was active on Twitter over the weekend discussing the direction he’s hoping to take SpaceX’s rockets. Prior to the second launch of SpaceX’s “weekend double-header,” Elon Musk was answering questions about some upgrades being made to the rockets, most notably the shifting of the material used to make the hypersonic grid fins from aluminum to titanium. While this does make the rockets marginally heavier, the titanium is able to withstand reentry heat without shielding, making them much more durable.

Musk explained further after the launch, saying that the new grid fins worked better than expected and could be relaunched on “an indefinite number of flights with no service,” — which would greatly speed up the turn around time for launches. Musk’s aim is to have rocket boosters ready for relaunch in less than 24 hours.

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Space Travel on a Budget

Elon Musk recognizes that cost could be a significant barrier to setting up a successful and long-lasting colony on Mars. One of Musk’s talks was recently adapted into a journal article for New Space wherein he set a specific goal for the cost of a ticket to Mars. “You cannot create a self-sustaining civilization if the ticket price is $10 billion per person,” Musk said, saying that costs should not go above $200,000 per person (which is roughly the median price for a house in the United States).

Upgrades that increase the durability of the rockets also make them more economical, as less time will elapse between launches and the teams tasked to prepare them will be smaller. The more rockets SpaceX is able to turn around, the cheaper each individual flight will be.

Only time will tell  how many more cost saving upgrades SpaceX has planned, but as a company that has already revolutionized space travel, no doubt they will continue to redefine it, too.

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SpaceX’s Reusable Rockets Could Save the Company a Lot of Money

Every Cone Counts

After a historic weekend “doubleheader,” SpaceX is leading the push for reusable rocket technology. CEO and founder Elon Musk said that launches using SpaceX’s reusable rockets are already $300 million cheaper than conventional one-way-trip rockets. Of course, there’s still room for improvement, and Musk has already said that one way the company could further reduce rocket launching costs would be making the payload fairings reusable.

A fairing is the cone that protects payloads as the rocket launches into space. They are strong enough to withstand the pressure and heat generated as the rocket passes through the Earth’s atmosphere. Constructed from carbon fiber and aluminum honeycomb, SpaceX’s composite fairing easily costs $6 million.

In order to reuse payload fairings, SpaceX first needs to be able to recover them. Responding to a question via Twitter, Musk gave an update as to where SpaceX is now in terms of fairing recovery and reuse.

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Recovering Fairings

SpaceX has already had some success with payload fairing recovery in the past — particularly back in March when it made its first successful launch of a reused Falcon 9 rocket. At that time, SpaceX managed to recover half of the rocket’s fairing — an achievement that Musk then described as “the cherry on the cake” amid success of the first attempt to reuse a rocket.

Fairing recovery is a tricky operation. As SpaceX’s fairing splits into two in order to release the payload inside, it doesn’t fall simply fall back to Earth.  As Musk explained back in March, “It’s its own little spacecraft. The thrusters maintain its orientation as it re-enters and then […] the parachute steers it to a particular location.”

In the case of the fairings used in this past weekend’s pair of launches, it appeared there were some problems with the steerable parachutes, though Musk said the issue could be fixed by the end of 2017. Once SpaceX manages to sort this out, it would cut a few more million dollars off the price of its rocket launches.

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SpaceX Just Transformed Space Flight, Launching Two Rockets in 48 Hours

As of 5 p.m. EST, this story is developing. 

Reusable Rockets

Elon Musk’s SpaceX took a scheduling delay and turned it into a historic opportunity: as the result of postponing the launch of a Bulgarian satellite from Monday to Friday of last week, SpaceX had two Falcon 9 rocket launches within 48 hours of each other. Friday’s BulgariaSat-1 launch happened from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The second one — carrying a payload of 10 new satellites from Virginia-based telecommunications company Iridium — lifted off Sunday afternoon from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

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The two back-to-back launches — a first for SpaceX — were made possible by its reusable rocket technology. Friday’s BulagariaSat-1 launch was only the second time the space venture company successfully reused a rocket booster, while Sunday’s marked the third. In a series of tweets after the launch, Musk seemed pleased with how far the reusable tech has come.

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That being said, it could still be refined even more. As he explained in his answer to a Twitter user’s suggestion, he’d like to see the rocket turnaround be so quick there isn’t even time enough to touch up the paint job.

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Apart from being weekend of firsts for SpaceX, it was also the first time Bulgaria launched a telecommunications satellite. For Iridium, today’s payload was the second batch of its planned 70-satellite constellation, which is part of its NEXT mobile communications network. The first 10 of these low-orbit satellites were launched in January.

Next Stop: Mars?

This weekend’s “doubleheader” was a confidence boost for the reusable rocket technology. Among other things, Musk hopes the tech will help lower the overall the cost of going to space. He previously highlighted that launching satellites aboard SpaceX’s reusable rockets is $300 million cheaper than conventional one-way-trip rockets.

Even before this weekend’s successes, interest in the reusable rocket tech has been steadily growing: to date, SpaceX has booked more than 50 missions — including one from aerospace giant Airbus. Most are scheduled for this year or into 2018. There are a number launches both from private corporations like Iridium, as well as from government agencies, similar to Bulgaria’s arrangement.

Perfecting its reusable rocket technology isn’t just going to benefit SpaceX in the short term. It’s most exciting potential application could actually be in the bigger rockets that could start ferrying human beings to Mars sometime in the 2030s.

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Musks Answers Rocket Questions Ahead of the Weekend’s Second SpaceX Launch

SpaceX is all set to make history with a “double-header” launch this weekend. The first launch and landing went off on Friday (nearly) without a hitch, sending Bulgaria’s first communications satellite into orbit.

Today’s launch will be carrying an array of new satellites for Iridium, an American communications company out of Virginia. The launch will bring the total number of Iridium satellites in orbit to 20, out of the planned 66.

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Just ahead of Sunday afternoon’s launch, founder and CEO of SpaceX, Elon Musk answered questions about some upgrades made to his Falcon 9 and 10 rockets. One interesting point about the upgrades is that while exchanging shielded aluminum hypersonic grid fins for titanium ones will make the rocket heavier, (thus requiring more fuel to launch) it will make them indefinitely reusable, thus cheaper in the long run.

These upgrades show SpaceX’s commitment to the reusability of these rockets. The ability to quickly turn around the rockets for the next launch is also a key to keeping costs down, which will open up space travel to more and more entities. This has been an ongoing priority for Musk, who views affordability as a key factor in our ability to successfully colonize Mars.

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SpaceX’s Weekend Doubleheader Off to Great Start With Successful Opening

Ready for Launch

After being postponed from its originally scheduled Monday launch, Bulgaria’s first-ever telecommunications satellite is now in orbit. The launch was a success thanks to SpaceX’s Falcon 9 reusable rocket, which blasted off to space on Friday from the Launch Complex of NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

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This marks the first part of SpaceX’s first-ever weekend doubleheader, as Elon Musk’s venture space company has scheduled two launches just about 48 hours apart. The launch appeared to go off without a hitch, as this photo taken by a Twitter user John Kraus shows.

Image credit: John Kraus/TwitterImage credit: John Kraus/Twitter

SpaceX used a previously launched rocket to haul BulgariaSat-1 into orbital space. It’s the second time SpaceX has successfully reused a rocket for a launch. The BulgariaSat-1 is the second satellite Bulgaria has in orbit, blasting off almost 36 years after the first.

Bye Bye, Rocket Booster

For his part, SpaceX CEO and founder Elon Musk seemed satisfied with today’s launch, if his tweets were any indication. What may have been even more exciting than watching the Falcon 9 lift off was following its descent back to Earth as it attempted to land on one of SpaceX’s barge platforms. The rocket made a solid thud as it hit the surface of the “Of Course I Still Love You” droneship, which is stationed somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean.

Musk expected the landing wouldn’t be too gentle, adding that the Falcon 9 was going to “experience its highest ever reentry force and heat in today’s launch,” he posted on a tweet before the launch. “Good chance rocket booster doesn’t make it back.”

Fortunately, it was able to make it in one piece — although it may have hit the surface of the platform a little to hard.

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The good news was that the crush core, as Musk explained in a reply on the same thread as his initial tweet, would take only a couple of hours to replace:

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So, despite a little bumpy landing, overall Friday’s launch was deemed a success. But the excitement is far from over: Sunday will usher in part two of this weekend’s doubleheader, when a payload of 10 satellites for telecommunication company Iridium is expected to launch from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

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SpaceX is Gearing Up for Historic “Double-Header” Launches This Weekend

SpaceX has a “double-header” planned for the weekend — two separate launches, one set for later today and then another on Sunday. In what seems like a growing theme for SpaceX as of late, today’s launch will again be making history as the mission that put Bulgaria’s first communications satellite into orbit. Even more, this is only the second spacecraft Bulgaria has ever launched into space, the first being a weather satellite launched nearly 36 years ago.

Photo credit: Bulgaria Sat
Photo Credit: Bulgaria Sat

Today’s mission is scheduled for 2:10 p.m. EST and has a two hour window to allow for delays. Thus far, weather seems to be cooperating with these plans. Sunday’s launch is planned for take-off from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California with a payload of Iridium satellites.

The Bulgarian satellite launch is the second instance of SpaceX reusing a rocket booster. The rapid succession for these launches in indicative of exactly what Elon Musk was hoping to achieve with reusable rockets. Not only does recycling rockets allow for cheaper launches, but it significantly cuts down on the time needed to prepare for each one.

SpaceX is continuing to make history and is cementing itself as the leading provider for the entire world’s extraterrestrial needs.

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Elon Musk to Reveal “Major Changes” to Plans for Colonizing Mars

Elon Musk and others are certainly not slowing down in the pursuit to colonize Mars. Major changes to this plan are currently underway.

— Elon Musk (@elonmusk) June 17, 2017

The nature of these updates was confirmed in a media question session at the Kennedy Space Center in March, during which Musk said he would provide an update on the design of the Interplanetary Transport System, and by Interplanetary Transport System, that includes the propellant depot on Mars,” He also stated that the tension in the project is to “not just get it done technically, but figure out how to get this done without going bankrupt.” He is, however, hopeful about this new approach.

Despite multiple assertions that the updates will be arriving imminently — including an announcement at an Everyday Astronaut event two and a half months ago that he was coming up “with a number of design refinements and probably ready to put on the website within a month or so” — there has been frustratingly little follow-up.

So, while we wait on tenterhooks for more information — stewing in the meta position of waiting for update news about an update — we were also given, fortunately, a transcript from the talk in which he details his non-updated plan, and gives an exciting look behind the scenes of SpaceX.

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SpaceX Announces Plans For a “Weekend Doubleheader” With Two Falcon 9 Launches

Those who follow Elon Musk on Twitter have gotten used to the flurry of announcements and musings that often arrive in the wee hours of the night. The SpaceX founder and CEO once again rocked the Twittersphere Sunday when he revealed what could be a first for his space company: a launch doubleheader.

If everything works out, it seems SpaceX plans to launch two Falcon 9 rockets from its Cape Canaveral and Vandenberg launch sites this weekend. Musk included a link to a tweet from SpaceX’s Twitter, which indicated June 25 as the target date for the “weekend doubleheader.”

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The payload for Sunday’s launch will be from telecommunications company Iridium, for which SpaceX previously launched 10 low-Earth orbit satellites in January. Friday will be the rescheduled launch of a Bulgarian satellite that was originally supposed to launch today (Monday), but that was delayed so that SpaceX could replace a valve on the rocket booster.

If the weekend doubleheader goes as planned, SpaceX will have more proof that it’s capable of handling a significant volume of launches. 2017 isn’t even half over, and it’s already proving to be a great year for SpaceX.

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WATCH: Elon Musk Gives Behind the Scenes Look Inside Falcon Factory

On Saturday, Elon Musk posted a video on Twitter giving us a behind the scenes look at the inner workings of  SpaceX. The video features shots of people working on both the inside and outside of multiple rockets at the Falcon Factory in Hawthorne, California. It also features some gorgeous frames of the technology, which Musks intends will help democratize space travel.

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An earlier tweet gave us an update on Musk’s plan to make humanity a “a space-bearing civilization and a multi-planetary species” by colonizing Mars. Although it provides insight into his logic and initial ideas, Musk did reveal on Twitter that there are “Major changes to the plan coming soon.”

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Musk’s SpaceX company is one of many currently developing the next generation of rockets. Thus far, these models appear primed to be cheaper alternatives to traditional space travel. One company, Blue Origin, similarly to Musk, is working on reusable rockets and another company, Rocket Lab (who recently had a successful launch), are aiming to create unprecedentedly cheap rockets capable of making frequent trips to space.

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2017 Is Shaping up to Be SpaceX’s Best Year Yet

SpaceX’s Progress So Far

In September 2016, Elon Musk humbly admitted that:

When starting SpaceX I thought the odds of success were less than 10%, and I just accepted that actually, probably, I would just lose everything but that I would maybe make some progress. If we could just move the ball forward, even if we died, maybe some other company could pick up the baton and keep moving forward, so we’d still do some good.

In 2017, he has exceeded just moving the ball forward in nearly every way possible — on top of becoming an industry leader in space flight, he has made major advances for humanity. Most of these concern space technology that can be used multiple times, reflecting his aim to address the conundrum of rockets being “the only form of transportation on Earth where the vehicle is built anew for each journey. What if you had to build a new plane for every flight?”

Dragon rocket launching for a second time. Image Credit: SpaceX

SpaceX’s first major landmark this year was to launch a satellite into space on a booster that had already been used before. In March, the company successfully propelled the SES-10 communications satellite into orbit by reusing the Falcon 9 rocket that had previously launched the CRS-8 satellite.

Next came flying the same Dragon rocket to the International Space Station for the second time; the company’s 11th supply mission in total. While the rocket had to undergo significant refurbishment, the mission on the 3rd of June was a seminal accomplishment that convinced NASA of the potential of reusable rockets — Kirk Shireman, Manager of the International Space Station Program, told CBS that “we expect to increase the amount of reflight as (NASA’s contracts with SpaceX) proceed.”

What the Future Has in Store

The next milestone SpaceX is set to cross is to launch the Falcon Heavy — the rocket that “was designed from the outset to carry humans into space and restores the possibility of flying missions with crew to the Moon or Mars.”

If Musk’s tweet that “All Falcon Heavy cores should be at the Cape in two to three months, so launch should happen a month after that” is true, we could see this goal realized as early as September. While the test flight will not carry a human passenger due to safety concerns, it will instead transport the “Silliest thing we can imagine!” into space: after the Dragon carried an enormous wheel of cheese on its first flight, it’s anyone’s guess as to what the Heavy’s cargo could be.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

SpaceX is also remarkable for the number of flights it is undertaking, not only their groundbreaking nature. So far this year, it has averaged a flight every three weeks; but the tempo of flights will increase even more. The launch calendar has flights planned on June 17th (BulgariaSat-1), June 25th (Iridium Next Flight-2), and July 1st (Intelsat 35E) — if all these go to plan, this would amount to three flights in two weeks.

SpaceX, then, is marching proudly into the future in terms of both the type and number of flights they are undertaking. While they had a challenging 2015 and 2016, their efforts and achievements in 2017 put them on the right path to achieving their most ambitious goal: putting humans on Mars by 2025.

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Elon Musk Just Published His Plan to Colonize Mars

A New Plan

They say everything’s sweeter the second time around, and that seems to be the case for SpaceX’s plans to colonize Mars. Last year, Musk unveiled his plans to colonize the Red Planet and make it fit for human habitation. Now, that version of the plan has been published and made available for free—with a few notable updates.

In the paper, the focus is on affordability, as that is the primary factor in making life on Mars a reality. As Musk notes, “You cannot create a self-sustaining civilization if the ticket price is $10 billion per person.” In order for it to be viable, Musk asserts that the cost should be about $200,000—equivalent to the median price of a house in the United States.  In the paper, Musk outlines the steps he considers essential to ensuring this relative affordability.

But this is just the beginning.  Musk posted a tweet today hinting that this version one is already being reviewed…and version 2 is on its way.

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Moving Forward

According to Musk, the version one has one fundamental flaw, which is the cost of developing and operating giant rockets. While SpaceX has been specializing on reusable rockets, getting to Mars would still be costly due to the size of the rockets needed. According to V1 of the plan, getting to Mars depends on a reusable rocket-and-spaceship tandem, which Musk has called the Interplanetary Transport System (ITS). Reducing the costs to developing the ITS is crucial, especially since Musk himself has already put a cap on how much a trip to Mars should be.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Musk asserts that he envisions 1,000 or so ITS spaceships, each of which are carrying 100 or more people, leaving Earth orbit during “Mars windows,” the point in time when Earth and Mars align favorably, which happens once every 26 months.

Outlining the importance of making this information freely available, New Space editor-in-chief Scott Hubbard asserts that “publishing this paper provides not only an opportunity for the spacefaring community to read the SpaceX vision in print with all the charts in context, but also serves as a valuable archival reference for future studies and planning.”

“There is a huge amount of risk. It is going to cost a lot,” Musk wrote. “There is a good chance we will not succeed, but we are going to do our best and try to make as much progress as possible.” By giving everyone access to this information, our chances of success are greatly improved.

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Elon Musk: Launching a Satellite with SpaceX is $300 Million Cheaper

Undercutting the Competition

In 2014, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report on the costs to launch spacecraft. In it, they criticized the lack of transparency that characterizes the prices and processes of the United Launch Alliance (ULA), a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin. However, until recently, the government didn’t really have any other options for launches, so the ULA had neither an incentive to increase pricing transparency nor a motivation to lower prices.

SpaceX is changing that in a major way.

The U.S. Air Force recently released their 2018 budget estimates, which include numbers through the early 2020s. The budget combines the entire launch price into a single per launch “unit cost.” For fiscal year 2020, that very high unit cost is $422 million, and it increases to $424 million one year later. In contrast, the SpaceX cost for basic commercial launches of the Falcon 9 rocket is around $65 million, a difference CEO Elon Musk was happy to point out via a tweet.

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Cheaper Space Travel

ULA lost its monopoly on launches when SpaceX entered the competition for national security payloads and won the chance to launch them. A side-by-side comparison reveals that SpaceX’s costs are considerably lower.

For example, in 2016, SpaceX launched a GPS 3 satellite for $83 million. Roughly one year later, SpaceX won another GPS 3 launch contract for $96.5 million. These contracts are higher than the $65 million basic price and represent the government’s “all-in, fully burdened costs,” including things like service contracts and additional range costs that are unique to government contracts.

Want to Go To Space? This is How Much It Will Cost You
Click to View Full Infographic

This means two things. First, the $83 million and $96.5 million price tags are comparable to the $422 million ULA cost in the 2020 Air Force budget. Second, SpaceX may be offering its services for $65 million to undercut the competition and gain traction in the market.

Either way, this dramatic decrease in cost is great news for space travel, whether it be for a government, commercial entity, or even a private citizen.

Even better news is the fact that SpaceX isn’t the only private company making cheaper space travel happen. Bigelow Airspace, Blue Origin, Virgin Galactic, and both Boeing and Lockheed Martin (outside their ULA partnership) are all competing for space travel contracts now, and ultimately, hopeful passengers like us will be the beneficiaries of this competition.

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Elon Musk Puts a Cap on Ticket Price to Mars Colony. Here’s How Much It Could Cost.

Mars Planning

Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX, delivered an address at the International Astronautical Congress held in Guadalajara, Mexico last year outlining his vision of getting humans into space. This talk has now been adapted into a fifteen-page article that was published in this month’s issue of the journal New Space. Musk focuses on affordability as a major factor to ensuring the possibility of Mars colonization. He says “You cannot create a self-sustaining civilization if the ticket price is $10 billion per person.” He believes that the cost should be about $200,000; equivalent to the median price of a house in the United States.

Musk outlines the steps he considers essential to ensuring this relative affordability. The first step, developing fully reusable transport, is already well underway at SpaceX. The company has already proven the reliability of its reusable rockets, and have recently demonstrated the reusability of the Dragon spacecraft. Fueling is also a key factor in controlling costs: equipping any craft with additional fuel will significantly increase the weight of the craft. Musk proposes using methane — which is produced on Mars and would therefore allow for refueling via sources directly on the plant.

Going Multi-Planetary

Many experts believe that in order to ensure the survival of our species, we must work to be multi-planetary beings. Perhaps Musk’s vision to get us to Mars is the first step toward that goal. Musk’s enthusiasm for his Mars project is quite timely if we are to believe Stephen Hawking, who predicts humanity only has 100 years left on Earth.

But colonizing Mars is only a one possibility space has to offer. Space mining and manufacturing can help to decrease the burden on Earth’s resources and give us the capability to create products that would be impossible to manufacture on Earth.

We are at the beginning of an exciting crossroads for humanity. The space race of the mid-20th century brought about great change for humanity. It’s looking like this iteration will completely transform us.

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Private Companies, Not Governments, Are Shaping the Future of Space Exploration

Space Race 2.0

Sixty years ago, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite into orbit. The event served as the starting pistol in what would come to be known as the Space Race, a competition between the U.S.S.R. and the United States for spaceflight supremacy.

In the decades that followed, the first human reached space, a man walked on the Moon, and the first space stations were built. The U.S.S.R. and the U.S. were soon joined by other world powers in exploring the final frontier, and by the time the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the contentious Space Race was something of a distant memory.

The World’s Top Space Agencies [INFOGRAPHIC]
Click to View Full Infographic

In recent years, however, a new Space Race has taken shape—Space Race 2.0. Rather than powerful nations guided by presidents and premiers, however, the competitors in this race are tech startups and private businesses spearheaded by billionaire entrepreneurs. And while the current atmosphere is far less contentious than that of the first Space Race (save the odd tweet or two), the competition is just as fierce.

A Crowded Field

SpaceX, Blue Origin, Bigelow Airspace, Virgin Galactic, Boeing, Lockheed Martin… Not only has the number of private companies engaged in space exploration grown remarkably in recent years, these companies are quickly besting their government-sponsored competitors.

“We’re starting to see advances made by private entities that are more significant than any advances in the last three years that were made by the government,” Chris Lewicki, CEO and President of Planetary Resources, tells Futurism.

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos’s Blue Origin and Tesla CEO Elon Musk’s SpaceX are arguably the two companies that are setting the pace. In November 2015, the former completed the first successful vertical rocket landing after sending their New Shepard 100 kilometers (62 miles) into the air. SpaceX landed its own rocket a month later, only they did so with a craft twice as heavy as Blue Origin’s and traveled all the way into space first.

A month after that, in January 2016, Bezos’s company became the first entity to re-launch and re-land a previously used rocket. SpaceX followed suit in 2017. “The government was never able to [build reusable rockets], but now, two private companies within the space of the same year have done that,” points out Lewicki.

Not only are private companies already surpassing their government counterparts, several are poised to widen their lead in the coming months and years.

If all goes according to plan, when SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy launches in September, it’ll take the title of the world’s most powerful rocket away from NASA’s Saturn V. Virgin Galactic is already selling tickets for what it expects to be the first private spaceflights, which will take place aboard the sleek VSS Unity. SpaceX plans to send space tourists to the Moon in 2018, and then in 2024, the company hopes to launch a system that will take people all the way to Mars…roughly 5-15 years before NASA expects to do the same.

All on the Same Team

Private companies may be in the lead, but the finish line for this Space Race isn’t exactly clear. The first iteration was arguably “won” when Neil Armstrong took his first steps on the Moon, so does this sequel end when we establish the first Moon base? When a human walks on Mars? When we leave the solar system?

Truthfully, the likelihood of humanity ever calling it a day on space exploration is slim to none. The universe is huge, with galaxy estimates in the trillions, so the goalpost will continue moving back (to bring another sport into the analogy). Rather than focusing on competing in what is ultimately an unwinnable race, private and government-backed space agencies can actually benefit from collaboration thanks to their inherent differences.

“The way that SpaceX, Planetary Resources, or Virgin Galactic approaches space exploration is going to be very different from NASA or the Air Force,” explains Lewicki. Private companies aren’t beholden to the same slow processes that often stall government projects, and they can secure or reallocate funding much more swiftly if need be. However, unlike agencies like NASA, they do have shareholders to keep happy and a need to constantly pursue profitability.

The two sectors, therefore, have a tremendous opportunity to help one another. Private companies can generate revenue through government contracts —for example, NASA has contracted Boeing to transport astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), and SpaceX just closed a deal with the U.S. Air Force to launch its secretive space drone. This leaves the government agencies free to pursue the kind of forward-thinking, longer-term research that might not immediately generate revenue, but that can be later streamlined and improved upon in the private sector.

Ultimately, Space Race 2.0 has no losers. The breakthroughs happening in space exploration benefit us all, and truly, a little friendly competition never hurt anyone (unless you count the egos bruised by those tweets).


This interview has been slightly edited for clarity and brevity.

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SpaceX Secures U.S. Air Force Contract for the World’s Most Mysterious Space Drone

Things are definitely looking up for SpaceX, as the company has recently enjoyed a series of achievements and accomplishments that are helping to prepare it for its planned 2030 Mars mission. SpaceX is currently busy with a number of other missions, however, the most popular of which being the private Moon mission.

But it looks like SpaceX is involved in a secret mission from the U.S. Air Force as well. This activity was revealed by Secretary Heather Wilson on Tuesday. “SpaceX will be sending the next Air Force payload up into space in August,” she said during a webcast testimony to the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee.

This payload is the Air Force’s highly secretive space drone, the X-37B. It’ll be launched aboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket, which first received certification from the Air Force to launch sensitive and costly payloads from the military back in 2015.

“We are excited about this new partnership on creating flexible and responsive launch options and are confident in SpaceX’s ability to provide safe and assured access to space for the X-37B program,” said Randy Walden, director of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office.

Securing private and government contracts works well for SpaceX. It provides the company with the funding needed to continue their rocket research. This capacity to further test and develop their reusable rockets will also allow SpaceX to reduce the cost of space travel.

Aside from its NASA and Air Force contracts, SpaceX’s logs list a number of private commissions, ranging from telco satellite launches to even contracts with Airbus and Bigelow Aerospace. Hopefully, this bountiful cooperation will yield widespread advancements in space exploration and travel.

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Elon Musk: The Rocket That Will Eventually Take Humans to the Moon Will Launch in 4 Months

Elon Musk is having a rather good week. He put on an excellent showing at Tesla’s annual shareholder’s meeting, and today, the news broke that Tesla’s stock price has surged. The company is listed on the Fortune 500 list for the first time ever. But of course, we cannot forget about another of Musk’s revolutionary outfits: SpaceX.

Musk’s space company has a number of milestone event planned for the coming months. Case in point, a few moments ago, a question from a Twitter user sparked an update from Musk on the company’s plans to launch the Falcon Heavy, SpaceX’s massive rocket that will one day take humans to the Moon.

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In the tweet, Musk confirmed that we will be seeing the rocket launch in just four months, at the end of the summer.

The Falcon Heavy will be the most powerful rocket in the world, capable of launching 54 metric tons (119,000 lb) of cargo and crew into space. The rocket will be used to boost the first space tourists to the Moon in a launch expected to take place in 2018. The entire journey is expected to take about six to seven days.

The Falcon Heavy will likely also play a role in preparing SpaceX for the highly anticipated first manned missions to Mars, set to happen by 2025.

We look forward to the upcoming launch and all the promise that its success will bring.

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SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Rocket Launches Most Advanced Communications Satellite Ever

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FL — SpaceX blasted the “largest and most complicated communications satellite ever built to orbit” for London-based Inmarset at twilight on May 15 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center aboard an expendable Falcon 9 rocket.

In fact the Inmarsat-5 F4 satellite is so powerful that it has the potential to reach “hundreds of millions of customers,” the Inmarsat CEO Rupert Pierce told Universe Today in a post-launch interview at the Kennedy Space Center.

“This is the largest and most complicated [communications] satellite ever built,” Pearce explained beside NASA’s countdown clock at the KSC press site.

SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying commercial Inmarsat 5 F4 broadband satellite blasts off to geostationary orbit at twilight at 7:20 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 39A on 15 May 2017 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Image Credit: Ken Kremer/Kenkremer.com

Blastoff of the Inmarsat-5 Flight 4 communications satellite for commercial High-Speed mobile broadband provider Inmarsat took place right on time early Monday evening, May 15 at 7:21 p.m. EDT (or 23:21 UTC) from SpaceX’s seaside Launch Complex 39A on NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

The newly-built 229-foot-tall (70-meter) SpaceX Falcon 9 successfully delivered the huge 6100 kg Inmarsat-5 F4 satellite to a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) under brilliant blue twilight skies from the Florida Space Coast.

“Satellite deployment success!” Inmarsat announced.

“#I5F4 has been released & is flying high on its way to geostationary orbit! Safe journey! Thanks for a great launch SpaceX!”

All 9 Merlin 1D first stage engines firing beautifully as SpaceX Falcon 9 arcs over down range successfully carrying Inmarsat 5F4 #I5F4 to geostationary transfer orbit at twilight after liftoff from Launch Complex 39A on 15 May 2017 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Image Credit: Ken Kremer/Kenkremer.com

Why launch such the largest and most complicated satellite ever? I asked Inmarsat CEO Pearce.

“We set a very high bar for the service offerings we want to offer for that satellite that just went up and is now on its way to in orbit testing,” Inmarsat CEO Pearce told me.

“That satellite will deliver mobile broadband for a third of the Earth at 50 megabits per second.”

“And by the end of next year those data rates will go up to over 300 megabits per second.”

“To get that kind of data speed you need very high processing powers, you need to deploy the new Ka band — which although it is still relatively unproven is looking like a very exciting new capability for space assets.”

The integrated Falcon 9/Inmarsat-5 F4 were rolled out to the KSC launch pad on Sunday to begin final preparations and were erected at the pad this morning for Monday’s liftoff.

Blastoff of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket at 7:20 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 39A on 15 May 2017 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida which successfully delivered Inmarsat-5 F4 broadband satellite to orbit. Image Credit: Dawn Leek Taylor

The first stage is powered by nine Merlin 1 D engines fueled by RP-1 and liquid oxygen propellants and generating 1.7 million pounds.

The seven meter long satellite was deployed approximately 32 minutes after launch when it will come under the command of the Boeing and Inmarsat satellite operations teams based at the Boeing facility in El Segundo.

It will now be “maneuvered to its geostationary orbit, 35,786km (22,236 miles) above Earth, where it will deploy its solar arrays and reflectors and undergo intensive payload testing before beginning commercial service.”

SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying commercial Inmarsat 5 F4 broadband satellite accelerates to orbit leaving exhaust trail in its wake after twilight launch at 7:20 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 39A on 15 May 2017 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Image Credit: Ken Kremer/Kenkremer.com

The Inmarsat-5 F4 (I-5 F4) will become part of the firms Global Xpress network “which has been delivering seamless, high-speed broadband connectivity across the world since December 2015,” says Inmarsat.

“Once in geostationary orbit, the satellite will provide additional capacity for Global Xpress users on land, at sea and in the air.”

I-5 F4 was built by Boeing at their satellite operations facility in El Segundo, CA for Inmarsat.

The new satellite will join three others already in orbit.

Inmarsat has invested approximately US$1.6 billion in the Global Xpress constellation “to establish the first ever global Ka-band service from a single network operator.”

Inmarsat 5 F4 counts as the sixth SpaceX launch of 2017.

And SpaceX is on an absolutely torrid launch pace. Monday’s liftoff comes just two weeks after the last successful SpaceX Falcon 9 liftoff on May 1 of the super secret NROL-76 payload for the National Reconnaissance Office, or NRO — as I reported here.

SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying Inmarsat 5 F4 broadband satellite stands raised erect poised for twilight liftoff from Launch Complex 39A on 15 May 2017 from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Image Credit: Ken Kremer/Kenkremer.com

Watch for Ken’s continuing onsite launch reports direct from the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

Stay tuned here for Ken’s continuing Earth and Planetary science and human spaceflight news.

Inmarsat-5 Flight 4 (I-5 F4) satellite undergoes prelaunch processing for liftoff on SpaceX Falcon 9. Image Credit: Inmarsat
SpaceX Falcon 9 Inmarsat-5 F4 (I-5 F4) mission artwork. Image Credit: SpaceX/Inmarsat

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The Launch was Successful. SpaceX Just Made History.

History in the Making

SpaceX is wasting no time on their mission to reinvent and revitalize space travel. The company has once again made history by successfully launching the previously-flown Dragon Cargo ship. The craft’s first mission, back in September 21, 2014, successfully delivered 2.5 tons of cargo to the International Space Station.

According to CBS News, for today’s launch, the craft was filled with nearly 6,000 pounds of cargo including supplies, equipment, special telescopes to study neutron stars, mice, and even thousands of fruit flies. The craft launched from the historic Kennedy Space Center’s launch pad 39A, the same pad from which the Apollo 11 mission launched in 1969.

The craft was successfully launched today, June 3rd at 5:07 PM EDT. Falcon 9 has just touched back down at the time of publishing and Dragon is well on its way in its two and a half day journey to the ISS.

The Dragon spacecraft now joins a prestigious group of multi-orbit space flight craft like NASA’s Atlantis, Challenger, Columbia, Discovery, and Endeavour  – firmly planting SpaceX as a formidable force in the new space race.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Hauler on a Budget

This is just the latest move by SpaceX that is poised to completely transform spaceflight. In March, the company made history by successfully launching and landing a recycled rocket for the first time. The relaunch of the Dragon has proven that SpaceX can continue to make missions to space cheaper, and therefore, more accessible.

SpaceX’s plans don’t just stop at restocking the ISS. The company has much bigger plans involving putting people back on the moon next year and sending the first humans to Mars by 2025. While SpaceX is no doubt celebrating this latest achievement, they are hard at work preparing their next feat: launching the Falcon Heavy rocket this summer.

The SpaceX team is truly revolutionizing space travel for the betterment of all of humanity. With a clear goal to make history and push the boundaries of what’s possible on Earth and in space, SpaceX is rapidly cementing its legacy while becoming a forerunner in the race toward the future.

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SpaceX Plans to Launch Its Massive Falcon Heavy Rocket This Summer

SpaceX has bounced back in a big way since the infamous setback in June of 2015. Since then, SpaceX has revolutionized space travel; launching and landing reusable rockets successfully for the first time in history. Now, SpaceX is moving forward with the launch of its Falcon Heavy rocket, an important stepping stone on the path to get humans to Mars by 2025.

SpaceX recently sent a tweet of the rocket being tested. The post also contained a video that showed the raw power of the rocket.

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Falcon Heavy has the ability to lift 54 metric tons (119,000 lbs) into orbit. The SpaceX website explains that the rocket “was designed from the outset to carry humans into space and restores the possibility of flying missions with crew to the Moon or Mars.”

The launch is expected to happen sometime this summer and will utilize two boosters from previous flights. This will allow for the cheapest launch of comparable class. The Falcon Heavy has the ability to lift twice as much as the rocket next in line (in terms of size/capability), and can do so at one-third the cost.

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NASA’s Newest Mars Rover Will Focus on Finding Evidence of Ancient Martian Life

Rover’s New Tricks

NASA has released pictures of its newest robot scheduled to be sent to the Red Planet in 2020. The images show an artist’s concept of the rover at work on the surface of Mars. The design of the robot has not changed significantly since Curiosity, but this new rover will have a completely different mission than the models before it.

Image credit: NASAImage credit: NASA/JPL-CALTECH

The Mars 2020 rover’s mission will be to search for signs of ancient Martian life. Scientists have been discovering more evidence of ancient life on the Red Planet from photographs taken of certain areas on the surface, and the rover will land on that location in search of tangible evidence. “The mission takes the next step by not only seeking signs of habitable conditions on Mars in the ancient past but also searching for signs of past microbial life itself,” explains NASA in a statement.

The statement also goes into how the rover will accomplish this. “The Mars 2020 rover introduces a drill that can collect core samples of the most promising rocks and soils, and set them aside on the surface of Mars. A future mission could potentially return these samples to Earth.”

Not Far Behind

Elon Musk’s space travel company SpaceX has its own plans regarding the Red Planet as well. Initial plans are for the company to begin unmanned missions to Mars in 2018 and follow those up by sending humans in 2025. The long-term vision is to colonize Mars to make humanity the first known multi-planetary species.

A Robotic Census Of Mars [Infographic]
Click to View Full Infographic

Unlike the contentious nature of the last space race, NASA does not feel that it is in competition with SpaceX (or any other commercial space organization) to get to Mars first. NASA recognizes the value that private enterprise can have on expediting the innovation necessary to put a human on Mars.

“It’s really important to create, bring some empathy to the table,” Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA’s associate administrator for science, said in an interview with Seeker. “There’s a lot of stuff that can be learned by just talking to people.”

Perhaps the Mars 2020 rover will unlock some of the secrets that will make it easier for humans to colonize the planet.

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Elon Musk: SpaceX Is Almost Ready to Update the World on Its Plan to Get Humans to Mars

Mission to Mars

Mars’ relative closeness to the Earth and ample distance from the Sun have made it humanity’s best target for off-world colonization. While a number of institutions are working hard to make a Mars colony a reality, SpaceX was the first to reveal a concrete plan to get to the Red Planet.

That plan has been outlined pretty clearly, but two important parts still lack detail: the spaceship that will transport humanity to Mars and the rocket that would launch that spaceship. While the plan is short on details, it includes plenty of acronyms, specifically MCT, ITS, and BFR.

The first two are actually one and the same. The Interplanetary Transport System, formerly known as the Mars Colonial Transporter, is the supposedly reusable spacecraft that would ferry people to Mars for $200,000 a head.

That transporter would reach space via the BFR, which stands for — no joke — Big F*cking Rocket, which should live up to its name. It’s expected to be bigger than the Falcon 9 and more powerful than the Falcon Heavy, which would make it the most powerful rocket ever built.

Coming Soon

Right now, we don’t know too much about the ITS and the BFR. Thanks to a recent Twitter conversation, however, we do know that answers are forthcoming.

When SpaceX CEO Elon Musk was asked for updates about the architectural changes for the ITS and the BFR by Twitter user @RITSPEX, he responded with a promising timeline of “a few month.” As Inverse pointed out, that timeframe would place the announcement in September, one year after Musk first revealed his plans for Mars.

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In the months since SpaceX’s plans were revealed, other agencies have been working on their own missions to Mars. NASA has recently detailed its two-phased plan to get to the Red Planet. Elsewhere, China has shared its plans to reach the Mars by the end of the decade, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has also joined the race. Among private space agencies, veteran aeronautics firm Boeing is intent on going head-to-head with SpaceX in getting to Mars.

All these efforts are varied, of course, but one thing is for sure. To get to Mars, we’ll need more than just a big f*cking rocket.

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SpaceX Just Broke a Major Milestone in Commercial Space Travel

Major Static Fire Test

SpaceX conducted its first test of the Falcon Heavy’s main core this week, with a successful result. SpaceX took to Twitter to release the video of the event. The rocket itself was strapped down for the static fire test as the engines of the rocket’s boosters were ignited. The Falcon Heavy uses three Falcon 9 boosters to power its larger rocket, which SpaceX hopes will make commercial space travel a reality.

While the original plan was to have everything operational for carrying space travelers and cargo into orbit by 2013, the latest incarnation of the plan calls for a launch in late summer of 2017. This successful test may indicate that this date is possible, although the SpaceX subreddit lists the test flight in Q4.

Take Off?

It’s possible that SpaceX CEO Elon Musk and his team are waiting to see how much progress they make between now and then — or that they just can’t decide yet. However, as Inverse reports, since Musk tweeted the late summer date in March and the subreddit says something different now, it’s possible that they’ve made the decision to push back the date even later, but haven’t announced it yet.

The Falcon Heavy is essential to Musk’s plan to send two private citizens into orbit around the Moon by late 2018. The spacecraft will “buzz” low over the Moon’s surface, although it will not land, and then allow the Moon’s gravity to fling it back to Earth. This week-long adventure would be more than an amazing first for humanity — it would also usher in era of commercial space travel.

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Watch All the SpaceX Landings Ever Attempted in One Glorious Super Video

SpaceX has made some excellent strides in recent months by proving that it can successfully launch, recover, refurbish, and re-launch its rocket technology. This has been a huge achievement, as reusable rockets have the potential to significantly alter the future of space travel by lowering the cost of launches, leading to greater access to the cosmos.

But SpaceX wasn’t an overnight sensation. Their monumental accomplishment has been developing for years, subject to testing and retesting, with successes and failures all along the way. The Verge was kind enough to compile footage of each of the company’s landing attempts, whether it was a success or went up in flames.

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The first two launches were attempted in January and April of 2015, and both ended with unfortunate booms. But the company must have learned some valuable lessons since the third attempt in December of 2015 was a success. The next few landings were a mixture of successes and failures, but SpaceX has been succeeding for more than a year straight now.

SpaceX’s journey is an excellent example of the perseverance needed to thrive in science and technology. These are fields of testing, retesting, confirming, and rethinking — not overnight successes.

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SpaceX Is Cutting Its Turnaround Time for a Rocket Re-Launch in Half

SpaceX has plans to re-launch a used Falcon 9 rocket booster. This will be the Falcon 9’s second trip since its launch five months ago, on January 14. The re-launch will also signify the transition of reusable rockets from the realm of the historically notable into the routine business of space exploration.

SpaceX has re-launched a rocket before, but the previous re-launch took place about 12 months after the initial launch. The agency has since cut down the time it requires to re-launch and reassemble its rockets. Ultimately, SpaceX plans to re-launch within a 24-hour period.

Via SpaceX
Image credit: SpaceX

More than speed is on the table here; the ability to reuse Falcon 9 rockets saves the company about 75 percent of the total costs of the rocket, $46.5 million of the $62 million total. The end goal will be faster, cheaper, easier space travel that’s accessible to consumers and space agencies alike.

After the March re-launch, Elon Musk remarked at a news briefing, “I hope people will start to think about it as a real goal to establish a civilization on Mars.” Each successful re-launch gets us closer to this aim.

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Virgin Galactic CEO: We’ll Be Ready to Send Tourists Into Space in 2018

Galaxy Quest

Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic is ready to take flight. The space tourism company is looking forward to launching their first commercial spaceflights before the end of 2018.

Virgin Galactic has recently tested its re-entry system from the Mojave Air and Space Port. Before this, the company completed its first solo glide flight of its ship, the VSS Unity, late last year. Both tests were successes and further fueled optimism for the company. Galactic Ventures CEO, former NASA staff chief, George Whitesides echoed that optimism during a hearing before the Senate Committee on Commerce.

The six passenger (and two pilot) spaceships will be launched from the air and take passengers to a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles) above the Earth. Passengers will be able to experience a few moments in microgravity and will have the privilege of taking in a view of the Earth that only a select few have ever had the privilege to see. Right now, tickets for this journey of a lifetime are going for $250,000.

*2* Virgin Galactic Says its on Track to Begin Space Tourism in 2018

Space Race 2.0

Virgin is not the only company looking to bring tourists to the final frontier. Jeff Bezos of Amazon.com founding fame has also started a space travel venture called Blue Origin. Passengers will fly aboard the New Shepard spacecraft to the same altitude as Virgin’s ships. Bezos is hoping to have flights running next year as well.

Elon Musk’s SpaceX has also expressed interest in commercial space travel. The company has developed the Dragon V2 spacecraft, capable of carrying seven people into space. Even more, they are looking to take their travel plans significantly further by promising a trip to the moon in 2018.

Clearly, space travel has undergone a significant revitalization. The privatization of space travel will continue to support scientific endeavors by boosting interest in exploring the cosmos, while also making it easier to do so by backing innovation that makes it easier, safer, and cheaper.

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SpaceX Just Laid out a Plan to Give Everyone Internet Access

A Worldwide Network

The fact that you’re able to read this article means you are one of the more than 3.77 billion people in the world that has access to the internet. While that’s already a good number — more than half of the world’s population, in fact — some 3 billion others don’t have such access. Thankfully, a number of efforts are underway to bring the internet to the farthest corners of the globe, and one of those is being put forth by SpaceX.

This is the Fastest Internet on Earth
Click to View Full Infographic

Back in November, Elon Musk’s company filed an application with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as part of its plan to create a high-speed, global internet network. At yesterday’s Senate hearing on U.S. broadband infrastructure, SpaceX confirmed this plan.

“SpaceX plans to bring high-speed, reliable, and affordable broadband service to consumers in the U.S. and around the world, including areas underserved or currently unserved by existing networks,” explained Patricia Cooper, SpaceX’s VP for satellite government affairs, in a prepared statement during the hearing.

SpaceX plans to improve internet speeds and overall connectivity in the U.S. and the rest of the world by putting 4,425 satellites into orbit between 2019 and 2024. The satellites will be transported into space in multiple batches via the company’s Falcon 9 rockets.

A Basic Human Right

The United Nations recently declared internet access a basic human right, and because it bypasses some existing complications to bringing internet service to far-flung areas, SpaceX’s endeavor would be a huge step forward in the effort to ensure all of the world’s citizens enjoy that right. “In large measure, the disparity in available service to rural and ‘hard-to-reach’ areas is the result of the heavy, up-front capital expenditures necessary to achieve connectivity to these locations,” Cooper said.

Image credit: NASA Johnson/Photopin
Image credit: NASA Johnson/Photopin

However, Elon Musk’s company isn’t the only one working toward global interconnectivity through improved internet service. Facebook is using massive, solar-powered drones to beam internet to the farthest corners of the world, AT&T wants to deliver wifi through existing power lines, and governments are getting in on the action, too, with New York and Canada planning initiatives to bring broadband to all citizens.

SpaceX is eager to contribute to the cause. “SpaceX looks forward to being part of the solution to expand access to high-speed, reliable, and affordable broadband internet connectivity in the United States and worldwide,” Cooper said. The web of satellites proposed by SpaceX would bring faster and more robust web access to more people, so now it’s just a matter of whether or not they’ll get the governments go-ahead.

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SpaceX Successfully Lands & Recovers the Falcon 9 After Secret, Classified Launch

SpaceX has hit another milestone today with the launch of its first big national security payload for the National Reconnaissance Office.

Image credit: SpaceXImage credit: SpaceX

This was the company’s second attempt to launch the NROL-76. The first launch was attempted last Sunday, but was postponed due to sensor issues just a few seconds before it was set to liftoff. And, while the second attempt was successful, it was also very nearly canceled due to high altitude wind velocity.

Given the payload’s classified nature, SpaceX couldn’t readily disclose what it was taking to orbit. However, they were still able to provide an exclusive webcast of the rocket lifting off from the LC-39A facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida—which included a never-before-seen clip of the Falcon 9 first stage, which serves as the core of the rocket, containing its main engine.

Following the launch, SpaceX was actually able to recover the Falcon 9’s first stage. This makes for a total of four completed recoveries for the company, which proves that reusing rockets in the interest of making launches and space travel more affordable is indeed feasible. The success of this particular launch could also be a sign of things to come as private aerospace outfits begin to enter the secretive world of military and national security launches.

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We Just Entered a New Age in Space. Here’s Proof.

A New Frontier

In previous decades, governments and national entities were the ones leading humanity’s charge into space. These efforts met with stunning success. The Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union put the very first human in space and took the very first humans to the Moon. The united efforts of five space agencies gave humans a permanent base in space—the International Space Station (ISS). Ultimately, these breakthroughs resulted in the creation of a host of spinoff technologies that transformed our society.

But it has been 40 years since we have been to the Moon. The ISS is nearly 20 years old. Governments have stalled, and a new generation of entrepreneurs has taken over.

Most Awaited Space Science Missions of 2017
Click to View Full Infographic

This is the age of privatized space. From Elon Musk’s SpaceX, which has successfully deployed a host of reusable rockets and carried goods to the ISS, to Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin, which has successfully tested its own reusable rocket and is well on its way to making space tourism a viable option for all people, commercial space companies are taking space out of the hands of governments and giving it to the people.

This is where the New York Center for Space Entrepreneurship (NYCSE) comes in. In short, their main goal is to accelerate humanity’s journey into space, and they seek to do this by working with companies, investors, and other entities in order to help democratize space for all people and create a global space economy. With this in mind, today, they are announcing a series of initiatives that will support space entrepreneurship around the globe.

To learn more about the initiatives that are being launched today, uncover why private spaceflight is important, and see how NYCSE is working to make space affordable, tune into Futurism’s 360º livestream with NYCSE tonight at 7pm est, which can be found here.

Sidney Nakahodo, Lecturer in International and Public Affairs at Columbia University co-founder of NYCSE, notes that our space projects are transforming at an unprecedented rate. He states that the “convergence of decreasing costs, access to launching opportunities, and fast technology evolution has propelled innovation in new products, services, and business models” is and ushering is into “a new era of space entrepreneurship.”

To this end, by nurturing businesses and entrepreneurs, NYCSE aims to help shape (or reshape) space exploration in the 21st  century.

Making Space Affordable

The importance of these efforts cannot be overstated. As Nakahodo notes, commercial space has already helped to create a host of breakthrough technologies, and more are on their way.

Commercial space has helped solve some of the most pressing problems of our time. Telecommunications, GPS, weather forecast are just a few examples of applications. Currently, non-government space already accounts for more than USD 250 billion, around 75% of the total yearly global space economic activity.

Beyond tax revenues and job creation, the most important outcome of the commercial space expansion will be how it will affect our lives. Fundamentally, the more we travel to space, the more we will reflect upon our own place in the universe, both in the attempt to address existential questions as well as a quest for collective inspiration.

Sadly, most innovators, researchers, and entrepreneurs aren’t able to fully participate in this ecosystem, as they lack access to the necessary monetary resources. Nakahodo outlines the succinctly summarizes the specific issue, noting that, “all of this is happening in times of limited public funding for space activities.” This is something that NYCSE hopes to help fix; however, their initiatives are about far more than just providing finances.

For Nakahodo, the most notable aspect of this new age in space entrepreneurship is the way that it equalizes spaceflight, bringing all people closer to the stars. He asserts, “The most interesting projects involve democratizing access and bringing humanity closer to space. That means not only developing the rockets necessary to take us there, such as SpaceX, Blue Origin, and Virgin Galactic are doing, but also creating the infrastructure that will allow private citizens to spend time in space.” And that infrastructure is precisely what NYCSE is working to create.

Outlining the specifics of the work, Nakahodo states that the first problem is tackling issues related to access to information. “One of the main challenges for commercial space ventures is the lack of business knowledge and early stage support. Therefore, we are launching a series of initiatives aimed at assisting space entrepreneurs with business learning and idea validation.”

The next problem stems from issues associated with networking—with connecting individuals working on various aspects of the industry so that they have all of the tools and resources (and people) needed to successfully complete their work. Nakahodo states that the second part of their initiative involves “developing an online platform that will allow space entrepreneurs to help each other, as well connect with mentors and investors.” Finally, NYCSE is giving individuals direct access to necessary resources by sponsoring specific joint programs.

In case you missed it, the initiatives are being fully unveiled today at Knotel. Be sure to tune into Futurism’s 360º livestream with NYCSE at 7pm est, which can be found here.

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This Year, SpaceX Will Launch a Game-Changing Rocket

The Heavy Rocket

SpaceX just celebrated one historic launch, and this summer, the company hopes to celebrate another when they send their Falcon Heavy rocket into space. The rocket will use two previously used boosters, and according to SpaceX’s website, “It will be the most powerful operational rocket in the world by a factor of two.”

Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX, had this to say about the rocket:

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Falcon Heavy is one of those things that at first it sounded easy. We’ll just take two first stages and use them as strap-on boosters. And like, actually no, this is crazy hard, and required a redesign of the center core, and a ton of additional hardware. It was actually shockingly difficult to go from a single core to a triple-core vehicle.

Falcon Heavy is, as the name implies, a massive craft that can create more than 5 million pounds of thrust in liftoff. The rocket can handle such a large payload that it is even capable of carrying the Dragon spacecraft. The only rocket to have ever before carried a larger payload was the Saturn V Moon rocket, which hasn’t flown since 1973.

Falcon Heavy will be a huge step forward on the path to less expensive, more advanced space exploration. The rocket with a close operational ability, the Delta IV Heavy, costs three times as much as SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy, which was designed with the intent to one day carry humans into space, specifically to Mars and/or the Moon.

“The World’s Most Powerful Rocket”

The hopefully successful launch of Falcon Heavy will likely change spaceflight and exploration as we know it. The outcome of current aspirations to reach Mars rests on our ability to transport extreme payloads, including humans. In just a few months, we’ll know if SpaceX’s reusable boosters will be capable of supporting such an incredible mission.

Image Credit: SpaceX
Image Credit: SpaceX

Private spaceflight was once dreamed about as a part of some sci-fi future, but as the realities of private space exploration unfold, it is clear that the privatization of spaceflight could truly make the Universe accessible.

Privately owned space exploration organizations are not dependent on government budgeting in order to function and create spacecraft. They can send missions in the name of science or simply just tourism. They can create spacecraft for researchers of any nationality, hailing from any country. And so, while the idea of commercializing space travel might sound a bit odd, it could allow for more research, more frequent missions, and unique innovation.

Now, this isn’t to say that government-fueled organizations like NASA are falling behind. The only thing that’s important is that space exploration and invention of this nature continues to flourish. The more people we have pushing boundaries and exploring new possibilities and concepts, the farther we will go.

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Zero-G Space-Based Factories May be The Future of Our World

Mission: Manufacturing

SpaceX has been getting a lot of attention since its historic launch of recycled rockets. The cost of getting people and technology into space has never been cheaper. This is opening up an entirely new world of possibilities for companies across a variety of different fields. One surprising development coming out of this news is an increased interest in manufacturing in space.

There are a lot of benefits of moving operations to space that can significantly benefit certain types of manufacturing. Space offers the closest physical approximation to a vacuum (something that is impossible on Earth), solar power only limited by what’s collecting it, extreme temperatures, and perhaps most importantly, microgravity. These factors can expand the capability of what manufacturers could accomplish on Earth. Companies are already vying to be among the first to be granted the opportunity to create in space, with exciting prospects across a variety of fields — especially in medicine.

The makers of a revolutionary stem cell printer, nScrypt, are working with two other companies, Bioficial Organs, and Techshot to begin printing real hearts from patients’ stem cells on the International Space Station (ISS) by 2019.

3D printing hearts in this way is not entirely possible on Earth. Researchers have to devise a scaffolding onto which the material can be printed, but it then must dissolve or be removed without damaging the printed structure. However, it is possible to print without a scaffold in space. “If we try to do it on Earth, it would look pretty for about a second and then just kind of melt all over the table,” says Eugene Boland, chief scientist at Techshot. “It would look like you just poured a Jell-O mold and then tried to immediately serve it—it would glob on your plate into this gelatinous mess.”

Space Organs

As you may have seen, most 3D printing needs to be done in layers. The object is built from the ground up one (effectively) 2-dimensional layer at a time. In space, the lack of gravity allows objects to actually print in 3D. Not only that, but the speed of the printing could be up to 100 times faster. For example, the gravity aboard the ISS will allow the printed structure to retain its shape as stem cells work to grow the tissue of a transplantable heart. The hearts could be ready in as little as 45 days. With the average median wait time of a heart transplant being four months in the United States, printing in space could save countless lives.

“People are getting tired of seeing Yoda figures being printed,” says nScrypt CEO Kenneth Church. “They’re saying ‘You promised me a heart. Where is it?’ And what I’m going to tell you is, ‘It’s in space.’”

Manufacturing in space isn’t limited to just saving lives either: more efficient fiber optics cables and solar panels are possible when they are made in space. The future of manufacturing is launching toward the stars, it is clear that even the sky is no longer the limit.

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Elon Musk Has Announced a New Goal for SpaceX, and It’s Utterly Revolutionary

Leading the Revolution

Elon Musk’s SpaceX is currently basking in the light of its latest achievement. The company succeeded in starting a spaceflight revolution by being the first entity to launch a mission into space using recycled rockets. The success of this historic mission will significantly lower the cost of space travel. Estimates say the launches could cost up to 30 percent less, saving companies or other organizations millions of dollars.

Musk may still be celebrating the launch, but he’s not at all content with just being the first. In a tweet sent out shortly after the successful landing of the refurbished Falcon 9 rocket, he revealed the company’s next goal for its rocket line: 24-hour turnaround.

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SpaceX is looking to make space travel akin to air travel.  “We’re really looking for true operational reusability, like an aircraft,” SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell said prior to the launch. “An aircraft lands, goes to the gate, passengers come off, passengers go on, you refuel, and then you fly again. What we’re looking to do is exactly that. We land and relaunch on the same day.”

Flight: The Future

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Even after this goal is achieved, SpaceX isn’t going to be done wowing the world. In fact, they’ll be more concerned about impressing other worlds. The company is planning to put a human on the Red Planet possibly as soon as 2025.

Not only will more economical rockets make it easier for SpaceX to get to Mars, they will also fast-track the ability of humans to stay there, setting up colonies beyond Earth. Musk wants to launch an Interplanetary Transit System (ITS) to keep a steady supply line operational between the planets.

As SpaceX is a private, not government-operated, company, it can achieve greater levels of collaboration with other countries to make the mission to colonize Mars a truly international effort. Cheaper flights will be a huge part of that.

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Elon Musk Says His Reusable Rockets Will Make Space Access 100-Times Cheaper

A Cheaper Space

On March 30, SpaceX managed to launch and land a previously used Falcon 9 rocket for the first time. The company has long claimed that its Falcon 9 would prove to be the world’s first fully reusable orbital rocket and that such rockets would be a game-changer in space exploration. After last week’s success, those predictions are starting to come true.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

Prior to reusable rockets, space flight missions relied on rockets built for single use. These “disposable rockets,” so to speak, were used in NASA’s space shuttle missions, but they were costly — for every mission, a new rocket had to be made.

Now, SpaceX’s cost-saving rockets are poised to usher in a new, cheaper era of space exploration. “At this point, I’m highly confident that it’s possible to achieve at least 100-fold reduction in the cost of space access,” SpaceX’s founder and CEO Elon Musk said after the historic SES-10 mission last week.

Reusability Is Key

SpaceX has proven its mettle when it comes to space missions. On its website, the private space company has logged more than 70 flights in its manifest. These include numerous missions funded by NASA, such as SpaceX’s 10 resupply runs to the International Space Station (ISS).

SpaceX’s 2012 mission to the ISS marked the first time a private spacecraft docked on the space station, and the latest of its supply missions just took place on February 19. SpaceX has also completed a number of landing tests using its Falcon 9 rockets, as well as missions that launched private satellites into orbit.

Image credit: SpaceX
Image credit: SpaceX

Now, with the Falcon 9’s reusability confirmed, things are moving forward for SpaceX. The next step is successfully reusing a Falcon 9, after an inspection and a re-fuel, within 24 hours after landing. According to Musk, “Rapid and complete reusability of rockets is really the key to opening up space and becoming a space-faring civilization.”

The Falcon 9 is powerful and massive enough to reach orbital speeds, and it’s tough enough to survive re-entry. It’s also currently the only truly reusable orbital rocket available. However, it likely won’t be the only one for long as Jeff Bezo’s Blue Origin is well on its way to developing its own reusable rocket. The more of these game-changing rockets we have available, the better the future looks for humanity’s exploration of Mars and other off-world wonders.

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Neil deGrasse Tyson Seems Skeptical of Elon Musk’s Mars Plans

Renowned astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson is a little wary of Elon Musk’s ability to send humans to Mars, but he does like what he’s seeing from SpaceX overall.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
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During a recent Reddit Ask Me Anything (AMA) session, Redditor patopc1999 asked, “Hi Neil! Just wanted to know your thoughts on SpaceX’s Falcon 9 relaunch and landing, and what do you think it means for the future of space travel?”

Tyson replied that “any demonstration of rocket reusability is a good thing,” and he even asserted that “reusability is arguably the most fundamental feature of affordable expensive things.”

The Redditor also wanted to know if Tyson would ever consider joining a future one-way trip to Mars, which prompted a less optimistic response: “I really like Earth. So any space trip I take, I’m double checking that there’s sufficient funds for me to return.” He candidly added, “Also, I’m not taking that trip until Elon Musk send[s] his mother and brings her back alive. Then I’m good for it.”

Image Credit: Reddit AMA

Elon Musk’s SpaceX recently made history by successfully launching and landing a used Falcon 9 rocket booster for the first time. The CEO has announced his intent to bring humans back to the Moon, as well, and SpaceX is looking to add hundreds of new employees to its ranks to help Musk make all these projects happen.

Given Musk’s track record for actually coming through on his plans, it could be simply a matter of time before Tyson boards a SpaceX rocket, with or without Musk’s mother riding one first.

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Elon Musk’s SpaceX Just Announced Hundreds of Open Positions

Help Wanted

If you simply walked past SpaceX’s headquarters, you may not realize that Elon Musk’s space travel project is looking for more staff — the futuristic company is way too cool to display an archaic “Help Wanted” sign out front. Those of you who do your job searches digitally, however, will find a wide array of job openings across 41 departments on the company’s careers website.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
Click to View Full Infographic

SpaceX is looking to fill a whopping 473 open positions at posts around the United States. A great majority, 313, of these positions are at the company’s headquarters in Hawthorne, California. Other locations include posts on both coasts of the U.S., as well as in Texas and Washington D.C.

The jobs run the gamut of experience, from highly skilled engineering positions that require advanced degrees in astronautics, mechanical engineering, or physics to experienced line cooks looking to feed the bodies that hold the brains of rocket scientists. According to Business Insider, “About half of the positions call for engineers, 33% for technicians, 5% for machinists, 5% for specialists, 5% for managers, and 1% for directors,” so there are a lot of ways to play a part in the future of space travel.

Business Is Booming

It’s no wonder that SpaceX is currently looking to ramp up operations. Late last week the company made history by being the first to launch a mission into space using reusable rocket parts.

This achievement is going to revolutionize the way we get to space, and we will likely see a boost across the entire space travel sector as a result of it. In addition to keeping those already involved with SpaceX inspired, this recent success should motivate competitors like Jeff Bezos’s Blue Origin and Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic to up their own games.

Now that reusing rocket parts is a proven concept, we should see a greater push to get technology and even humans up into space. These rockets will save considerable money, allowing space tourists, companies, and other entities greater access to that final frontier.

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SpaceX’s Historic Launch Proves Recycled Rockets Are the Future of Space Exploration

SpaceX has long said it would like to make its entire Falcon 9 rocket reusable. Today, Elon Musk’s company made history by successfully relaunching and re-landing a used Falcon 9 rocket booster for the first time. The SES-10 mission marks a “historic milestone on the road to full and rapid reusability as the world’s first re-flight of an orbital class rocket.” Falcon 9’s first stage for the SES-10 mission previously supported the successful CRS-8 mission in April 2016.

In an interview after the launch, Musk called it a “huge revolution in spaceflight.”

SpaceX’s Historic Launch Proves Recycled Rockets Are the Future of Space Exploration
SpaceX

The recycled rocket carried a satellite into orbit for SES, a Luxembourg-based telecommunications company, which will provide internet and television service for Central and South America.

In order for commercial space travel to be viable, companies like SpaceX have to make it more affordable. Currently, the Falcon 9 costs about $62 million. However, Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX’s COO, says reusing a rocket booster could result in a 30 percent discount per launch, saving companies more than $18 million.

“This is an amazing day for space as a whole,” said Musk post-landing, “for the space industry it means you can fly and re-fly an orbital class booster, the most expensive part of the rocket.”

“This is potentially revolutionary,” John Logsdon, a space policy expert and historian at George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute, told Business Insider. “Reusability has been the Holy Grail in access to space for a long, long time.”

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Today, SpaceX Will Try Something “Potentially Revolutionary” in Humanity’s Journey Into Space

Here We Go!

Elon Musk’s SpaceX is planning to make history today with the first relaunch and re-landing of a previously launched and landed Falcon 9 rocket booster. A successful operation will be revolutionary for future missions to space.

The booster was first launched on April 8, 2016, and was successfully recovered after it landed on a drone ship stationed out on the Atlantic Ocean. The original launch was also carrying a satellite into orbit.

Today, SpaceX Will Try Something “Potentially Revolutionary” For Our Future in Space
Credit: Michael Seeley

Pending good weather, SpaceX is hoping to relaunch then recover the lower half of their Falcon 9 rocket. The rocket will be carrying a satellite into orbit for SES, a Luxembourg-based telecommunications company, that will provide internet and television service for a large portion of Central America as well as South America.

The Rockets That Put Us Into Space [INFOGRAPHIC]
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SES really wanted to be involved in the first launch from a reusable rocket, said Marcus Payer, the global communications director for SES.

“Wherever we can change the industry equation, we will do it. We were waving our hands to be the first,” Payer said in an interview with Business Insider. “We are not risk-averse, otherwise we would not be launching satellites.”

The goal of reusable rockets is to cut the cost of launching missions to space significantly. SpaceX already boasts the most affordable rocket launches in the world, but they could get even cheaper should reusing prove successful, especially since the boosters are the most expensive components of SpaceX’s rockets. The move could give SpaceX customers a 30 percent discount on launches, potentially saving companies $18 million per launch.

Cheap Rides to Space

A more cost effective way to get to space could really invigorate the space industry. Cheaper launches will enable more countries to get in on the cosmic action. Musk is confident that the rocket boosters could be reused more than 100 times.

SES CTO Martin Halliwell said his company is proud to play a role in this innovation. “We believe reusable rockets will open up a new era of spaceflight, and make access to space more efficient in terms of cost and manifest management,” Halliwell said in an SES press release.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars
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Another exciting potential of reusable rockets is the ability to travel to and from colonized planets. One of SpaceX’s major goals is to get humans onto Mars. The ability to launch multiple missions with the same rockets will significantly cut down the cost of colonizing such a planet.

Even before we see that lofty goal as a possibility, a lot of excellent work can be done with increased accessibility to space. The implications for commercial space travel, communications satellites, and astronomical research could truly make this technological feat one for the history books.

“This is not a one-off. If it works, it will become a key element in all future satellite constellations,” Payer said in the Business Insider interview. “We’ll be double-happy if this goes well, for both our sake and SpaceX’s.”

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Elon Musk Is “Not Smiling” Over Trump’s New NASA Budget

“This Is Not It”

Today, President Trump signed legislation S.442, giving NASA more than $19.5 billion in funding as well as an ultimatum – get to Mars by 2033. Notably, NASA isn’t going to be dealing with the same cuts as other science and medical agencies (they are set to lose enormous portions of their budget).

This prompted Recode co-founder Kara Swisher to enthusiastically tweet at Musk, “Somewhere is smiling.” Musk, however, seemed anything but happy at the claim, responding: “I am not. This bill changes almost nothing about what NASA is doing. Existing programs stay in place and there is no added funding for Mars.”

He continued, “Perhaps there will be some future bill that makes a difference for Mars, but this is not it.”

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Other experts tend to agree with this assesment—that this budget is not a great leap forward, but maintaining the status quo. “I think it’s really more of a vote for stability,” notes Scott Pace, who is the director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University.

Unlocking the Mysteries of Space

On the surface, this bill may seem promising. Trump has expressed support for a crewed exploration of Mars, and in his inauguration speech he said he’s “ready to unlock the mysteries of space.” The 146-page legislation document calls for several missions in addition to the following:

    • Journey to Mars — asks NASA for a roadmap to send people to Mars by 2033; also steers the space agency away from pursuing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (a plan to capture an asteroid, tow it into orbit around Earth, and have astronauts explore the space rock).
    • Aeronautics — calls on NASA to be a leader in aviation and hypersonic aircraft research; also asks the space agency to look into supersonic-aircraft research that would “open new global markets and enable new transportation capabilities.”
    • Radioisotope power systems — implores NASA to deliver a report on how it plans to make plutonium-238 — an exceedingly rare nuclear fuel for deep-space robots — and detail what its nuclear-powered exploration plans are.
    • Congressional declaration of policy and purpose — amends previous laws to make it part of NASA’s mission to “search for life’s origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the universe.”

However, in addition to not securing added funds for Mars, the Trump administration recently came under fire about the ways in which new budgets cut NASA’s Earth Science funds. According to

According to Business Insider, “if enacted, that budget would cut several major space agency initiatives, including the Office of Education, and seeks to terminate the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE), Orbital Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3), Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), and CLARREO Pathfinder missions.” Notably, all of these missions are directly related to Earth and its environment.

To this end, Musk—who is a strong advocate for the environment and renewable energy—has been taking some heat regarding his involvement with Trump’s science advisory board. In a 2015 speech at the Sorbonne University, he urged students to “talk to your politicians, ask them to enact a carbon tax” and to “fight the propaganda from the carbon industry.”

We’re running the most dangerous experiment in history.

And this was not his only call to action. At the end of the day, Musk is as much a proponent for the environment as he is for Mars. In a 2013 interview for USA Today’s Innovators and Icons series, Musk stated that the current climate struggle is literally life or death: “We’re running the most dangerous experiment in history right now, which is to see how much carbon dioxide the atmosphere can handle before there is an environmental catastrophe.”

It now seems that, despite Musk’s involvement with the Trump administration, even he cannot influence the White House in the ways he’d like…and he’s not happy.

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Space Agencies Want to Put Humans on Mars by 2033, but Will Humans Be Ready to Go?

Planning For Mars

In case you hadn’t noticed, there are a lot of agencies and companies working hard to get humans to Mars. SpaceX says it will definitely launch their crewed mission by 2020. NASA has a mandate to get the US to Mars by 2033.

China will launch its first Mars probe by 2020 with the aim of becoming a “frontrunner” in space exploration by 2030. While that hasn’t included explicit plans for Mars yet, other frontrunners in space will be there in the 2030s. Mars One’s goal is to establish a permanent human colony on the Red Planet. The UAE has also stated that it plans to place a human colony on Mars, with a safety goal date of 2117.

life-on-mars
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Pitfalls On Mars

While getting to Mars may be the initial hurdle to overcome, the challenges won’t stop once we get there. Humans living on Mars must be equipped to handle the necessary social disruptions, potential emotional turmoil, medical dangers, and other potential hardships. Life on Mars would demand that humans adapt to the planet — rather than expecting Mars to adapt to their presence. Physical health problems that arise on Mars could well be untreatable, depending on the type of expertise, equipment, or other resources that would be needed to treat them. Further complications could arise on a genetic basis, as concerns of consanguinity could be a threat to colonies if an insufficient number of people for propagation made the journey.

Mental health concerns could be even more salient for Mars colonies, which would essentially be cut off from the life they knew on Earth. Although results from NASA’s HI-SEAS isolation experiment — which seals off small crews near the top of Hawaii’s Mauna Loa volcano — have been promising, many believe that there is really no way to truly prepare humans mentally for life on Mars while they’re still on Earth.

The real, and perhaps simplest, answer may be that life on Mars won’t be for everyone. Neither is life in New York City, or tattoos, or any number of lifestyles or practices. The beauty in the diversity of human experience is that all those things have their loyal adherents — and so will off-world living.

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When Should We Send Humans to Mars?

Gearing Up for Mars

For the first time in human history, human space exploration will go beyond our moon. With more than one organization looking to send humans to the red planet, traveling to Mars isn’t just a distant possibility — it’s an impending reality.

In 2020, there will be a specific launch window that will allow travel from Earth to Mars in the shortest, most efficient path possible. Given our current rocket technology, the trip would take about five to six months. This window will not only expedite travel, but will give organizations a more specific time frame to work within. However, according to current progress, it is most likely that government and private space organizations will be sending only unmanned probes until the 2020’s and 2030’s.

NASA notes that “they are currently further along than ever before in human history on [their] Journey to Mars.” Additionally, last year, SpaceX started testing the rocket intended to bring humans to the red planet, China announced its ambitious plans to reach Mars (with an unmanned probe) by the end of the decade, and the UAE announced that they plan to reach the planet by 2117.

As Explore Mars Chief Executive Officer Chris Carberry recently stated:

Today we have unprecedented support for Mars exploration from Congress, industry, and the general public. Children born in 2017 are more likely than any generation before them to witness, before their 18th birthday, humans walk on another planet for the first time.

*3* Are We Really Ready to Send People to Mars?

The Reality of Martian Travel

This unprecedented support is encouraging, but it will take a lot more than that to send humans to Mars.

For starters, there will be no stopovers between Earth and Mars — which means that everything humans will need, including (but not limited to) food, water, air, will need to be on board for a trip that experts are estimating to last as long three years. Six months to get there, six months back, and at least a year in between as they conduct research and wait for a launch window.

Of course, given advances in technology and the continued success of the International Space Station (ISS), we are significantly more knowledgeable than ever about space travel and how to ensure an efficient use of resources. Still, even the ISS requires supplies to be sent to the outpost every few months.

ISS astronauts consume nearly two pounds of food daily. If you assume the same volume of food will be consumed by a four-person crew on a three-year Mars mission, that means they need to bring a total of 24,000 pounds of food with them. SpaceX may have been able to deliver a payload of 5,500 pounds of supplies to the ISS, but that was because they used an unmanned Dragon capsule.

NASA tried to find a food solution with a recent 3D printing project that yielded a 3D printed pizza. However, it might be more possible to make up this shortage by space farming, but the field is still in its infancy. To date, the ISS’ Vegetable Production System has only been successful in planting flowers and five harvests of Chinese cabbage. Eventually, though, once the technology is better understood and more trials prove to be successful, space farming could hit two birds with one stone and provide food as well as oxygen.

These challenges are currently being addressed by the different space agencies preparing for their Mars missions. And, hopefully, by the time the launch window opens up, we’ll be more than ready to explore the Red Planet.

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The Competitors in Today’s Space Race Are Companies, Not Countries

The New Space Race

Billionaire space entrepreneurs Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk are racing to the moon and beyond. On February 27, Musk and SpaceX announced plans to bring two paying space tourists into orbit for a weeklong trip circumnavigating the moon by the end of 2018. Days later, we learned that Amazon Prime really would be everywhere by 2020 when word leaked that Blue Origin and Bezos plan to begin delivery of human habitats, science experiments, and other gear to the moon.

This neck-and-neck progress characterizes the new space race, in which private companies are fueling innovation as much — or more than — countries. The winners aren’t just the owners of the companies, but all humans, as space technologies are continuously developed and improved. For example, Blue Origin and SpaceX both prioritize tech like reusable rockets that cuts cost of space travel, which may eventually make striking out into the universe more accessible to more people.

The New Space Race To The Moon
Credit: Michael Seeley

In other words, when winning the race isn’t about nuclear supremacy, but cornering a market with a streamlined technology or a better product, the space race works for everyone. It bears the same positive fruits that the first space race did: the unprecedented levels of concentrated scientific innovation. However, the modern space race achieves this without as many destructive, unintended consequences as were produced by the Cold War and arms race.

Innovation: Step By Step

SpaceX and Blue Origin have all but publicly acknowledged their rivalry. In November 2015, the New Shepard rocket from Blue Origin landed after a suborbital test flight. Musk congratulated Bezos, but argued that SpaceX’s goal of making a landing during orbital liftoffs is much tougher to master. Bezos, not one to let this go, pointed out that the Falcon 9 first stage doesn’t really make it to orbit and performs a deceleration burn, rendering its landing less of a challenge. One month later, SpaceX did nail its first Falcon 9 landing, only to be hailed a noob in “the club” by Bezos.

Since that time, Blue Origin landed the New Shepard booster four times before retiring it. SpaceX brought eight Falcon 9 first stages back to Earth safely. Both companies are working on big rockets: the Falcon Heavy for SpaceX and New Glenn for Blue Origin.

Invaders From Earth!: How Elon Musk Plans to Conquer Mars

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Now, both SpaceX and Blue Origin are planning to bring tourism to the final frontier, the first step in settling outer space. The SpaceX Dragon will carry its paying passengers first if all goes to plan, but not by much. Both companies plan to have manned units in space and heading for the moon in 2018, not because of any petty rivalry (for the most part), but because Musk and Bezos share the same ultimate goal: the settlement of space.

“Our ultimate vision is millions of people living and working in space,” Bezos told the press in 2015. Musk has repeatedly called space colonization a “necessity,” and has shared detailed plans for Mars colonies.

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To Colonize Mars, Humans Need to Evolve

Colonizing Mars

NASA’s current plans, first outlined in 2010 and later fleshed out in 2015, place humans on the red planet in the 2030s. They are currently developing the necessary capabilities to make it happen in tandem with other agencies and private companies. NASA is collaborating with private innovators, like engineering professor Behrokh Khoshnevis, to 3D print structures on the moon with the eventual goal of creating similar structures that can withstand the radiation of the Martian atmosphere.

Elon Musk sees colonizing Mars as a necessity, and SpaceX has a congruently ambitious timeline for Mars exploration in place. The UAE has plans for a Mars Colony by 2117.  Although the ESA is currently more focused on its plan for colonizing the moon, they did announce a joint Mars venture with Russia back in 2011. Even the Mars One Foundation is taking the non-profit approach to what is essentially the same goal: the establishment of a permanent human settlement on Mars.

*3* Mars Colonies Will Demand Radical Changes From Humans That Want To Populate Them
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Human Life On Mars

Challenges for human life on Mars will be extensive, however; and possibly more significant than previously thought. Based in part on medical data gathered from Scott Kelly of NASA and Mikhail Kornienko of Russia’s year-long mission on the ISS, an article from Space Policy argues that simulating Earth’s parameters for supporting human life will be virtually impossible.

“We cannot simulate the same physical and environmental conditions to reconstruct the Martian environment, I mean such traits like Martian microgravitation or radiation exposure,” lead author and University of Information Technology and Management cognitive scientist Konrad Szocik told Seeker.

“Consequently, we cannot predict physical and biological effects of humans living on Mars.”

Many discussions of terraforming Mars have ensued over the years, but the issue of any atmosphere created simply blowing away is a sticky problem for Mars. NASA scientists have conceived of a magnetic shell for Mars which might be able to retain an atmosphere. However, for each technical solution to a specific physical problem, there are numerous other issues that — according to the authors of the Space Policy paper — point to an inescapable conclusion: it will be more practical to modify the minds and bodies of the future residents of Mars than it will be to change the planet to support them.

For Szocik, the social and political aspects of how a Martian colony would function are just as problematic as physical challenges and health problems. “A human being is a social animal and he lives in a group,” he said. “Group problems affect many challenges and troubles, and we should consider now how we can prevent such typical human problems like conflicts, wars, cheating, etc.”

Szocik is also concerned about maintaining life on Mars. First, we would need a large enough colony to avoid problems of consanguinity, and we’d need a suitable technological and medical support system. Each medical worker would need to be specially trained to sustain and extend life on Mars in particular—which is, of course, something that basically no one in medicine at the moment is trained to do. In that respect, preparing for life on Mars might begin with changes here on Earth: we’ll have to reconsider everything we know about learning, relating, working, and be willing to redefine our life expectations.

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Within 3 Years, We Could Have Private Space Stations Orbiting the Moon

Next Stop: The Moon

Aerospace entrepreneur Robert Bigelow thinks space stations could be orbiting the Moon by 2020. However, he stresses, these giant refueling depots will only be possible by that time if the Trump administration prioritizes the national urgency and funding that such an initiative will need.

*3* Private Space Stations May Be Orbiting the Moon by 2020
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“The key is going to be how fast the Trump administration can react,” Bigelow told Space.com in a March 3 interview, adding that the administration would have to move quickly “to energize funds and to galvanize the private sector.”

Bigelow, who heads Bigelow Aerospace, understands the industry. His company has already launched three private inflatable space-habitat prototypes into orbit. The most recent is the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) project, which was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016 via a SpaceX Dragon cargo ship. BEAM is the first inflatable room ever privately built and installed on the space station. It was created as part of a NASA future space habitats test, and thus far, Bigelow reports that it is performing well.

Take a Trip to Space

Space tourism is a hot topic for Bigelow and other space entrepreneurs.

On February 26, Elon Musk announced that SpaceX will launch a private flight to the Moon in 2018. The charter aboard the Dragon capsule already has two passengers who have made “significant deposits.” Those private citizens will have the opportunity to orbit the Moon after launching via SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket. Also with his eyes on the Moon is Jeff Bezos, who told The Washington Post on March 2 that his private space company, Blue Origin, is making its own plans for a Moon venture.

Habitats for the Moon and beyond and private space stations are goals for Bigelow and his company. He hopes to launch a colossal inflatable space habitat and free-flying private space station into orbit in 2020 and claims that Bigelow Aerospace aims to provide habitats at “a fraction” of NASA’s cost. As his company and others make space flight cheaper and more accessible, humanity will be able to extend its reach beyond our home planet, perhaps one day visiting and even colonizing new ones.

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Mars, Tomb of Futurism: The Hopes of Success Are Dependent on Cyborg Humans

Tend Your Own Garden

If immortality is the Holy Grail of Futurism then the colonization of Mars is its Holy Sepulchre—a big empty tomb. Both attract their pilgrims: the former is a fairytale; the latter is a real place just out of reach, a sort of tantalizing inspiration to hungry dreamers everywhere salivating for land that doesn’t belong to them. These days, from the promises of Elon Musk to the heroics of Matt Damon, we positively fetishize Mars. Yet my advice to the 11th century crusader and the 21st century Martian colonist would be the same: tend your own garden.

I’m afraid that this is blasphemy from someone who calls himself a Transhumanist. After all, the colonization of space is tangentially connected enough to other themes associated with technological progress that they’re ordinarily all lumped together under the general banner of Futurism. In an increasingly divisive political climate, the promises of SpaceX and Mars One shine like the hope of some long-awaited escape from ourselves.

We might not have cities on the moon, but the fruits of space programs enrich our lives immeasurably.

More fundamentally, the allure of space colonization is at the heart of some of our most beloved cultural narratives, shaping the aspirations of explorers since the first days of NASA and the Soviet Space Program. Even the earliest films lionized astronauts. The moon landing was the greatest collective lived experience of the twentieth century, this perfect human achievement more majestic than the pyramids and just as pointless only to the cynical.

Today, we might not have cities on the moon, but the fruits of space programs enrich our lives immeasurably. And given our recklessness when it comes to the fragile environment of this planet, perhaps we could use another world as a backup, just in case. We already have the technology to achieve the goal of getting to Mars, though for a perfect storm of reasons, it has yet to happen. But isn’t getting there a worthy goal? And won’t the journey there (and not only the physical journey, but the technical refinements forged along the way) benefit the cause of Progress with a capital P? Then what the hell am I complaining about?

jcsat_streak
Space X JCSAT-14 long exposure launch. Credit: SpaceX

Colonization Problems

My intention here isn’t to trash space exploration or regale you with clickbait about the top eleven reasons why the colonization of Mars would be a tragic mistake at this juncture in time. However, I want to seriously problematize the prospective colonization, if you’ll excuse a word that academics tend to overuse. I don’t want to focus on the hackneyed and frankly shortsighted idea that the money spent on getting to Mars could be better employed for services here on earth.

My critique has to do with the repercussions of contemporary attitudes about the seemingly unrelated topics of imperialism in outer space on the one hand and Transhumanism on the other. Cultural prejudices enshrining heroic astronauts blazing across the sky and mad scientists forging abominations pose serious problems for Transhumanists of all stripes and would-be Martian colonists alike.

If the predominant image of space colonizers enshrined in our zeitgeist is heroic pioneers soaring across the galaxy in the name of science and adventure, the narratives surrounding genetic engineering and cyborgs are positively apocalyptic by comparison—just think of Frankenstein, the Terminator, and GATTACA.

Somehow, an astronaut’s 400 million kilometer journey from Earth to a theoretical outpost in a faraway wasteland seems less terrifying than a head’s four-meter journey from its body to a theoretical apparatus capable of supporting its consciousness.

The reasons for this difference in our intuitions are varied. They partly have to do with the genealogy of our ideas about imperialism in outer space, which are grounded in discourse about the benefits of the exploration and exploitation of underdeveloped foreign lands, exotic travelogues, Cold War propaganda, epic films, etc. They also have to do with the attitudes that surround Transhumanism, grounded in skepticism about discredited fields like galvanism, the abuses of the eugenicists, deep-seated fears surrounding physiological dislocation and dismemberment, etc.

Heroes and Monsters

The end result of all this discourse is that, right now in the popular imagination, would-be cyborgs are monsters and would-be Martian colonists are heroes. Let’s take it for granted that the exploration of Mars would provide net benefits for society at large. Nevertheless, whether from the vantage point of someone who wants to investigate Mars and preserve its landscape (let’s call this the environmentalist perspective) or someone who wants to colonize and terraform it (the imperialist perspective, which incidentally seems to completely dominate the environmentalist one), the problem inherent in this tension is immense.

First, imagine you were an environmentalist who felt strongly against the radical transformation of Mars. Your reasons might be varied. To you, the urge to dominate nature with the clutter of terrestrial civilization might seem arrogant and intrusive. True, there are no indigenous Martians to despoil. But the process of terraforming the planet’s surface would still seem to be hugely rapacious.

Mars, Tomb of Futurism: The Hopes of Success Are Dependent on Cyborg HumansMars, Tomb of Futurism: The Hopes of Success Are Dependent on Cyborg Humans

Imagine drowning its pristine scarlet valleys in water and clouding its translucent atmosphere with chemicals. Wouldn’t even the most single-minded developer preserve some of the planet’s original landscape rather than transform it all? Doesn’t this intuition concede that there is inherent value and beauty in the wild state of the place? If advanced aliens exist within visitable distance of our planet, they are evidently the type to silently observe or ignore us rather than actively intervene in our affairs. How primitive it might seem to them that our conception of space travel in 2017 is still bound to the small-minded earthly impulse to barge in, dominate nature, and claim random parcels of it as our own.

From this perspective, the only visits to Mars should be undertaken for the sake of exploration rather than colonization. The best agents to do so would be robots and cyborgs rather than unenhanced human beings, whose imprint on the environment would be immense by comparison. Yet until the development of cyborgs, we are doomed to either only know Mars indirectly or permanently scar its landscape as successive generations of pioneers perish on its inhospitable surface.

Now, consider the imperialist perspective. To you, between climate change, nuclear war, plague, and pestilence, the existential threats to human civilization are great enough that you feel we need to colonize Mars as soon as possible or face the potential extermination of civilization as we know it. The preservation of the beauty of nature is all well and good, after all, but human interests come first.

Yet the conditions on Mars for the colonizers would be like something out of Dante; indeed, the first Martian immigrants should be “prepared to die,” warns Elon Musk.

As it is, we can’t even control the weather yet here on Earth, let alone create a colony on another planet with an inhospitable atmosphere. The bright eyed and bushy tailed original colonists would be like Joseph Conrad’s Mr. Kurtz, fantasizing about the march of civilization but ending up the lonely dupes of capitalism wallowing in lunacy in a dark place where they shouldn’t have ventured in the first place.

On closer reflection, the imperialist would realize that until it became feasible to travel to Mars on a mass scale, the original colonies could only remain pitiable outposts for misguided dying settlers and insanely rich tourists rather than anything like a safety net for civilization at large. The fastest and most efficient way to transform the landscape would be by the sweat of cyborgs. And yet ironically, with the advent of cyborgs, the need to terraform the environment to suit un-enhanced human needs would perhaps be moot.

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NASA

Great Respect

While I might have misgivings about the subjugation of a planet ironically named for the god of conquest, I don’t want to disparage a journey there as an admirable Futurist goal. But whether you are an advocate of peaceful exploration or large-scale colonization, the time has come to think realistically about the requisite intermediate steps. We need to make heroes of the pioneers who are willing to risk their lives and careers to overcome the hurdles on the way to our destination “in this dark march toward whatever it is we’re approaching.”

Cyborgs and space explorers are entirely akin in their willingness to risk their lives for the sake of challenging the boundaries of conceivability. Yet in 2017, we call volunteers for the journey to Mars heroes, and there are no volunteers at all for brain implants because no doctor would ever dream of performing such an operation or convening a conference to discuss plans for one.

If a prominent surgeon called for volunteers and warned, as Musk did, that they must be prepared to die, I wonder if the public would meet the declaration with the same resigned sigh in recognition of the heroism of all involved. The principle is precisely the same: a human life is at stake. Yet we are willing to sanctify the sacrifice of the astronaut and glorify him, but would rather reverse engineer a machine analogous to a human brain than implant a machine into one

Investment in Mars in the absence of Transhumanism as a vigorous social ideology doesn’t necessarily come at the expense of Transhumanism, but it does come at the expense of the future of Mars. The most widespread current projections of the next century of human development imagine the needs of unenhanced humans predominating as a matter of course. Hence, long-term plans for Mars call for terraforming the planet to create a second Earth. Yet this limitation in our imaginations augurs great brutality and a great deal of human blood spilled along the way as we struggle to dominate conditions not meant for our bodies.

This, of course, does not mean I think there should be no exploration of Mars, or even that I am dead-set against eventual colonization. But I would hope that any such colonization would be undertaken in a spirit of great respect for nature, imposing upon it, let alone uprooting it, as little as possible. And I would also pray that the path toward colonization would be blazed with as few deaths as possible along the way.

Yet this can only take place after the ascendancy of Transhumanism and not a moment before it. For the time being, I would no more recommend a journey to Mars than I would a voyage across the Atlantic to an ancient Roman armed with nothing but a leaky trireme and his copy of Ptolemy.


David Vincent Kimel is a doctoral student in History at Yale. Connect with him on Twitter and Instagram (spqrkimel). Visit his blog at earthasitis.com.

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NASA Wants Private Missions to Give It a Ride to Mars

Hitching a Ride

NASA made a recent public request. They stated that they were looking for opportunities to “hitch a ride” on non-NASA missions to Mars. This might sound strange at first, but it makes sense. NASA is not the only agency launching and planning to launch missions into space, and bringing smaller NASA experiments aboard privately owned ships could allow for quicker advancements in research. NASA, along with many others, has ambitious plans of eventually sending manned missions to Mars. However, in order to further our explorations into space, we must first have more information.

Relying only on the data provided by NASA missions would slow progress. Partnering with private agencies like SpaceX would not hinder any privately-funded research, it would only add to the amount and type of information gathered.

The Future

NASA has big plans for the future. They have done extensive research into the possibility of terraforming Mars, had astronauts simulate living on Mars for an entire year, and continued planning unmanned missions to the Red Planet in order to learn more. There has even been recent discussion of creating an artificial magnetic field around Mars in order to terraform it over time and make it habitable for humans.

There is a lot of work ahead if NASA wants to put humans on Mars and, hopefully, one day terraform the planet. While there have been successful unmanned missions from NASA and other organizations, joining forces will allow for this progress to accelerate for the benefit of all parties involved. This wouldn’t be a merger of institutions, but rather a smart way to combine resources and eliminate waste. More frequent research on Mars will lead to better science and more informed space exploration. And, as scientists continue to develop the best ways for us to exist on the Red Planet, it is important that we better understand the mysteries of Mars.

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Will SpaceX’s Moon Tourists Survive the Trip Across the Cosmos?

Commercial Space Travel

Early this week, Elon Musk of SpaceX made an exciting announcement: humans are going back to the Moon next year. An interesting detail of the plan is that the crew is expected to include two private citizens who have apparently “already paid a significant deposit” to become part of the first Moon mission in more than 45 years.

The journey will take about a week, reaching around 480,000 to 640,00 km (300,000 to 400,000 miles) into space — extending past the 401,000-km (249,000-mile) record set by the Apollo 13 astronauts back in the 1970s.

Credit: SpaceX
Credit: SpaceX

There have been significant advances in space travel in the decades since the U.S. managed to put a man on the Moon. Even so, this private Moon mission is not without risks, especially to its paying passengers.

Customer (Life) Support

On their mission, the space travelers will likely experience severe motion sickness because zero gravity confuses the balance sensors in the inner ear. The absence of gravity also causes biological tissues to expand, so while the space tourists will be able to snap a selfie with the Moon in the background, they’ll have to deal with puffy faces in their post. More serious concerns could come from radiation exposure. This risk will be partially mitigated by the spaceship’s built-in protection against radiation, as well as the short time-frame of the mission, but these do not completely eliminate the danger.

Perhaps the most worrying aspect of space travel are the circumstances that we can’t yet predict. For instance, spacecraft failure and other technical difficulties that could take place during blastoff, over the journey, or even upon reentry into Earth, could prove to be dangerous.

Consider also that, up until now, only extremely healthy people have been sent to space — and they still went through rigorous  training and health checks to ensure their bodies were up to the task. A burgeoning space tourism industry means we might one day be sending relatively unhealthy people into space — people who could require medication to travel. Their health will be subjected to a completely new environment, and, should a medical complication arise, the medicine and equipment necessary to treat it could be hundreds of thousands of kilometers away.

Nevertheless, private companies like SpaceX continue to look for solutions for these potential problems. This year, SpaceX will launch the unmanned Crew Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station, followed by a manned mission in the second quarter of 2018. The next stop after that will be the Moon. And then, if everything goes as planned, we will finally make our way to Mars.

As it has in the past, space exploration continues to demonstrate that humanity is willing to take a few risky steps in order to make that next giant leap.

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Everything You Need to Know About SpaceX’s Trip to the Moon

To the Moon and Back, Again

On Monday, SpaceX revealed plans to fly two private citizens around the Moon by late 2018, 45 years after NASA’s astronauts last embarked on a lunar mission. Here’s a quick rundown of what you need to know about it.

First Private Tickets to Space

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It’s a private endeavor. The two passengers actually approached SpaceX and have already paid a significant deposit for the first private space tickets to ever be sold. The passengers will be trained and prepared for this mission, of course. “We expect to conduct health and fitness tests, as well as begin initial training later this year. Other flight teams have also expressed strong interest and we expect more to follow,” SpaceX said in a statement.

Though a private mission, it has NASA’s approval. “NASA commends its industry partners for reaching higher. We will work closely with SpaceX to ensure it safely meets the contractual obligations to return the launch of astronauts to U.S. soil and continue to successfully deliver supplies to the International Space Station,” NASA said in a statement released after Monday’s announcement.

A Dragon and a Heavy

SpaceX will use its Crew Dragon spacecraft for this mission. It will be launched via a Falcon Heavy rocket, which is still currently in development but will blast off for a test flight this summer.

A Dragon aboard a Falcon Heavy is set for a crew-less maiden voyage to the International Space Station (ISS) by the end of this year as part of a program with NASA. SpaceX’s first crewed flight is slated for the spring of 2018, and the Moon mission will be just the second time the rocket venture company launches people into space.

A Giant Loop for Mankind

It’s not a landing mission, really. It’s more like a cruise during which the Crew Dragon spacecraft will loop around the Moon.

During the announcement, Musk said the Crew Dragon “would skim the surface of the moon” before heading “further out into deep space” to be thrust back to Earth. According to Time, the mission will follow a “circumlunar trajectory, in which the ship simply swings around the far side of the moon and allows lunar gravity to fling it home, rather than settling into orbit.”

The journey will probably take around six to seven days: two to three days going to the Moon and another two to three coming back. Extra supplies of propellants, oxygen, water, etc., will be on board to sustain the passengers.

Futurism
Futurism

Crucial Challenges

The biggest hurdle is the launch. SpaceX has had some troubles with those in the past, and this time, people will be on board. The company has been taking extra precautions to ensure the safety of its launches, and it hasn’t experienced any mishaps since its Falcon 9 rocket explosion in September.

Reentering the atmosphere is another challenge. Though designed for a touchdown, SpaceX has said previously that its Dragon spacecrafts can safely land anywhere, even on water.

The success of SpaceX’s private lunar mission is in everyone’s best interests, of course. “Designed from the beginning to carry humans, the Dragon spacecraft already has a long flight heritage. These missions will build upon that heritage, extending it to deep space mission operations, an important milestone as we work towards our ultimate goal of transporting humans to Mars,” SpaceX said.

This mission has the potential to usher in an era of deep space tourism — as long as you have the money to pay SpaceX for the tickets, of course.

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BREAKING: Elon Musk And SpaceX Are Sending Humans to the Moon

The Age of Commercial Spaceflight

Rocket science isn’t easy. Ask any engineer. Rocket science isn’t cheap. Just ask NASA. Fortunately, in recent years, a number of commercial spaceflight companies have stepped up to the plate in order to help national space agencies extend their reach into the final frontier.

Innovative companies like  Elon Musk’s SpaceX and Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin have accelerated the development of reusable rockets exponentially. In so doing, they have dramatically reduced the cost of leaving our pale blue dot, improving both our ability to explore the cosmos and scientists’ capacity to conduct research beyond Earth.

To be more specific, in 2012, SpaceX became the first private space company to deliver cargo to the International Space Station (ISS). Previously, this monumental feat was something that had only been achieved by world governments.

At the present time, the company is working on the Crew Dragon, a next-generation spacecraft that is designed to ferry humans to the ISS. One day, SpaceX even plans to land on Mars, and if Musk has anything to say about it, humans will be on the Red Planet—possibly living there for good—in the next decade or so.

Ultimately, private spaceflight companies are leading our charge into the cosmos. This is because successfully reusing boosters is a critical part of bringing down the cost of launches…and it’s something that the world’s governments have failed to produce.

With this technology, we won’t have to build a completely new rocket for every single mission. According to SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell, reusability could lower the cost of rocket launches by a staggering 30 percent.

A fully reusable vehicle is the fundamental breakthrough needed to revolutionize access to space.

Likewise, Musk asserts that such rockets are the key to a truly economically viable space industry: “A fully reusable vehicle has never been done before. That really is the fundamental breakthrough needed to revolutionize access to space. If one can figure out how to effectively reuse rockets just like airplanes, the cost of access to space will be reduced by as much as a factor of a hundred.”

And Blue Origin echoes these sentiments, with Bezos calling such technologies “the Holy Grail of rocketry.” After the first landing of Blue Origin’s New Shepard resuable rocket, Bezos wrote, “I believe this is a new Golden Age of space exploration. The first Golden Age was the ’60s. We have been treading water for a long time. We are on the verge of a new Golden Age in rocketry. I believe one day all rockets will have landing gear.”

This means that we can have more frequent and cheaper launches. This, in turn, means faster progress in both commercial spaceflight and our off-world research and exploration. In short, private spaceflight is ushering in a new age in our voyage into the cosmos.

Above And Beyond

Yesterday, Musk stated that SpaceX would have a breaking announcement today at 4pm EST (1pm GMT). And he just revealed that SpaceX will be sending two private citizens around the Moon.

The space company said in a statement that the two individuals have “already paid a significant deposit” to do a Moon mission. Initial training, along with health and fitness tests, are set to occur later this year, SpaceX continued.

Ultimately, this is the first flight to the Moon with a crew in more than 45 years, and SpaceX went to lengths to point out the significance of this work: “Like the Apollo astronauts before them, these individuals will travel into space carrying the hopes and dreams of all humankind, driven by the universal human spirit of exploration.”

SpaceX also outlined the nature of the project and clarified the timeline:

SpaceX has been approached to fly two private citizens on a trip around the moon late next year. They have already paid a significant deposit to do a moon mission….We expect to conduct health and fitness tests, as well as begin initial training later this year. Other flight teams have also expressed strong interest and we expect more to follow. Additional information will be released about the flight teams, contingent upon their approval and confirmation of the health and fitness test results.

To break this down, to begin, SpaceX plans to launch the Crew Dragon (Dragon Version 2) spacecraft to the ISS without people on board this year, and then a subsequent mission with crew will fly in the second quarter of 2018. From there, the company will head to the Moon, an important milestone as they work towards the ultimate goal—transporting humans to Mars.

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Elon Musk Set to Reveal A Breaking SpaceX Announcement

This year has already been a rather epic one for SpaceX and Elon Musk, and it’s only February. Just last week, we saw the Falcon 9’s third successful landing on solid ground, a landing which took place alongside SpaceX’s first commercial rocket launch from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.

The significance of these reusable rocket landings cannot be overstated.

Successfully reusing boosters is a critical part of bringing down the cost of launches, as we won’t have to build a completely new rocket for every single mission. According to SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell, reusability is expected to lower the cost of launches by a staggering 30 percent.

This would allow for more frequent launches and, as a result, faster progress in both commercial spaceflight and our off-world research and exploration. But it seems that Elon Musk has something else up his sleeve.

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“SpaceX announcement coming at 1 p.m. PST,” Musk wrote on Twitter yesterday. If you need some translation, that means that the reveal is set for 4 p.m. EST (2100 GMT).

Unfortunately, SpaceX representatives won’t say anything more than simply “stay tuned.” As a result, speculation abounds. Do they have an update on their mission to get humans Mars? News about the development of the Falcon Heavy rocket? Are they launching a new kind of program? Do they have a new major contract?

We will have to wait until this afternoon to see.

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