Category: south pacific

Combatting Climate Change Is “A Matter Of Survival” Says Fijian Minister

Climate change may still be a matter of debate in some pockets of the United States, but globally, there’s not much controversy. These days, most world leaders are not reluctant to discuss climate change, one of the defining issues of our era. This was certainly the case at this year’s United Nations Global Summit, held at the UN headquarters in New York City in late September — there was no shortage of conversations dissecting strategies to cut emissions and slow the pace of warming.

But one leader framed the stakes in a way that left little room for debate. On September 21, during a panel discussion focused on uniting for climate change held in the media zone (outside the general assembly), Inia Seruiratu, Fiji’s Minister of Agriculture, Rural and Maritime Development and National Disaster Management, told a small audience that mitigating climate change is necessary for our survival.

“For Fiji and the South Pacific, this is not just a matter of sustainable development, but it’s a matter of survival as well. For us it’s very critical to build resilience so that we can achieve sustainable development in the long-term,” Seruiratu said. He continued:

We [Fijians] are low-emitters. But we are also contributing towards mitigation. For us, more mitigation now means less adaptation in the future. We keep insisting that we have to equally balance between adaptation and mitigation because for us, as a small island state, mitigation is critical — it’s important because it’s a matter of survival. Therefore, for us to have resilience in the future, we have to have a balance between adaption and mitigation.

Fiji, as Seruiratu noted, is an island in the South Pacific, a region among the most vulnerable in the world to the effects of sea level rise and destructive storms. In February 2016, tropical cyclone Winston devastated Fiji, causing US$1.4 billion in damage. Fiji is better equipped to mitigate that damage and adapt to new conditions than some of its neighbors, such as Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu, according to assessments from the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index.

Can We Come Back from Climate Change’s Brink?
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Smaller island nations, such as the Marshall Islands, Tuvalu and Kiribati, are at risk of disappearing completely.

Financing this shift is critical, Seruiratu said. Nations like Fiji need to put money into updating infrastructure to be more resilient (and to put insurance policies on them), to implement climate policies like turning to energy sources that don’t emit as much carbon dioxide. Who, exactly, should pay for all that has been a matter of debate as more countries have agreed to international climate treaties such as the Paris Accord.

Seruiratu is one of the leaders for the COP23, the UN’s climate meeting that will be held in Bonn, Germany in November.

Seruiratu reiterated that taking action against climate change isn’t up to any one country, or community, or individual. Everyone must play a part. “In uniting for climate action, we must understand that first we are all vulnerable, and we must all act. We all have to take responsibility,” he said.

The post Combatting Climate Change Is “A Matter Of Survival” Says Fijian Minister appeared first on Futurism.

An Underwater “Continent” Could Reveal Secrets About Earth’s Distant Past

Under the Sea

Tens of millions of years ago, a landmass that’s being referred to as Zealandia was largely submerged beneath the Pacific Ocean. This summer, a team of scientists set out on an underwater expedition using an advanced research vessel, and the results might yield brand-new insight into Earth’s prehistory.

More than thirty scientists from twelve different countries were present on the two-month excursion. By drilling into the ocean floor some 4,000 feet below the surface, they were able to collect 8,000 feet of sediment cores that will give us a glimpse into geological processes that have taken place over the last 70 million years.

“The cores acted as time machines for us allowing us [sic] to reach further and further back in time, first seeing the ancient underwater avalanches then evidence of rocks forged from a fiery origin,” wrote Stephen Pekar, one of the scientists who took part in the study, in a blog post. “One could imagine somewhere near by on Zealandia laid mountains that belched fiery rocks and rolling smoke.”

It’s thought that Zealandia broke off from Australia between 60 and 85 millions years ago, forming New Zealand and other islands in the region. However, there’s still some debate as to whether or not it could be classified as a continent in its own right.

In February 2017, Northwestern University geologist Michael Scotese told National Geographic that while it was continental, it wasn’t a continent. He compared its relationship with Australia to the link between North America and Greenland, and Africa and Madagascar.

Fossil Finds

Over the course of the expedition, over 8,000 fossils were found, giving the team an opportunity to study hundreds of different species. Knowing more about the creatures that inhabited Zealandia before it was submerged allows scientists to make informed guesses about what conditions were like.

Image credit: subarcticmike

“The discovery of microscopic shells of organisms that lived in warm shallow seas, and of spores and pollen from land plants, reveal that the geography and climate of Zealandia were dramatically different in the past,” read a statement from Gerald Dickens, who led the voyage.

Based on the remains that have been found, it’s thought that land-based animals once roamed around Zealandia. The region would have served as a bridge that could be used to cross between continents, according to a report from The Guardian.

Back to Zealandia

It’s expected that the findings of this expedition will help us better comprehend how life propagated through the South Pacific, and offer some fresh perspective to the debate as to whether or not Zealandia is a continent. Despite the region being well-known to geologists, this is the first peer-reviewed paper to look at it in detail.

Amber Encased Prehistoric Creatures Found in 2016
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The sediment cores and fossils gathered on this trip have given researchers plenty to work with now that they have returned home, but the expedition’s organizers are already eager to make their return.

There are hopes that further study could produce more information about climate change, relating to the history of Zealandia’s climate millions of years ago and today. A vessel equipped with drilling equipment is set to visit regions close to New Zealand, Australia, and Antarctica in 2018.

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